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European Political Parties (Part II: the parties) [with Poll]

by Migeru Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 10:01:23 AM EST

As we saw in Part I: the rules, there is a definition of European Political Party for the purposes of receiving EU funding. The operative clause seems to be

Regulation (EC) No 2004/2003
Article 3
Conditions
A political party at European level shall satisfy the following conditions:
...
(b) it must be represented, in at least one quarter of Member States, by Members of the European Parliament or in the national Parliaments or regional Parliaments or in the regional assemblies, or
it must have received, in at least one quarter of the Member States, at least three per cent of the votes cast in each of those Member States at the most recent European Parliament elections;
At least one quarter of the member states means 7 states. This is the reason why the Nordic Green Left (see below) doesn't qualify as a political party according to this definition: it is represented in too few member states.

Below the fold, a brief look at the currently recognised political parties, and some smaller but significant groupings. For the avoidance of doubt, this diary is about the European Political Parties, not about the European Parliament Groups (I expect to devote Part III to those), and the distinction is clearly made when appropriate. Also, these parties often include emmbers from outside the European Union, but those are irrelevant to the "funding" rule quoted above so are not listed and 27-state membership lists are already long enough.

From the diaries ~ whataboutbob


European People's Party

The European People's Party self-describes as a family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilization of the European continent and has pioneered the European project from its inception. The EPP is a Christian Democrat (hence the reference to the "roots" of Europe) and Conservative grouping, and IMHO this means it has both feet firmly to the right of the centre.

The Party also boasts

69 member-parties from 37 countries, 16 heads of government (10 EU + 6 non-EU), 9 European Commissioners (including the President), and the largest Group in the European Parliament with 264 members
which makes it the "largest European-level party". Note, however, that the 264 MEPs in the parliamentary group include not only the EPP but the European Democrats (Conservative Eurosceptics, see below).

The EPP member parties in EU member states are:

  • Germany:
    • Christlich Demokratische Union (CDU) (Christian Democratic Union);
    • Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern (CSU) (Christian Social Union of Bavaria)
  • France: Union pour un Mouvement Populaire (UMP) (Union for a Popular Movement)
  • UK: no member party
  • Italy:
    • Forza Italia (FI) (Go on Italy);
    • Popolari-UDEUR (UDEUR) (Democratic Union for Europe);
    • Unione Democratici Cristiani di Centro (UDC) (Union of Christian Democratic and Democratics of Centre);
    • Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP) (South Tyrolean People's Party)
  • Spain:
    • Partido Popular (PP) (People's Party);
    • Unió Democràtica de Catalunya (Democratic Union of Catalonia)
  • Poland:
    • Platforma Obywatelska (PO) (Citizens Platform);
    • Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe (PSL) (Polish Peasant Party)
  • Romania:
    • Partidul Popular Creştin-Democrat (PPCD) (Christian-Democratic People's Party);
    • Partidul Democrat (PD) (Democratic Party);
    • Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România (UDMR) / Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség (RMDSz) (Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania)
  • Netherlands: Christen-Democratisch Appèl (CDA) (Christian Democratic Appeal)
  • Greece: Νέα Δημοκρατία (ND) (New Democracy)
  • Portugal:
    • Democratic and Social Center / People's Party (CDS/PP);
    • Partido Social Democrata (PSD)(Social Democratic Party)
  • Belgium:
    • Centre démocrate humaniste (CDH) (Humanist democratic centre);  
    • Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams (CD&V) (Christian Democratic & Flemish);
    • Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (N-VA) (New Flemish Alliance)
  • Czech Republic: Křesťanská a demokratická unie - Československá strana lidová (KDU-CSL) (Christian and Democratic Union - Czechoslovak People's Party)
  • Hungary:
    • Fidesz - Magyar Polgári Szövetség (Fidesz - Hungarian Civic Union);
    • Magyar Demokrata Fórum (MDF) (Hungarian Democratic Forum)
  • Sweden:
    • Moderaterna (M) (The Moderate Party);
    • Kristdemokraterna (KD) (Christian Democrats)
  • Austria: Österreichische Volkspartei (ÖVP) (Austrian Peoples Party)
  • Bulgaria:
    • Демократи за силна България (Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria);
    • Съюз на Демократичните Сили (Union of Democratic Forces);
    • Демократическа партия (DP) (Democratic Party);
    • Български Земеделски Народен Съюз - Народен Съюз (Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union - People's Union)
  • Slovakia:
    • Slovenská demokratická a kresťanská únia - Demokratická strana (SDKÚ-DS) (Slovak Democratic and Christian Union - Democratic Party);
    • Strana maďarskej koalície (SMK) / Magyar Koalíció Pártja (MKP) (Party of Hungarian Coalition);
    • Krestanskodemokraticke hnutie (KDH) (Christian Democratic Movement of Slovakia)
  • Denmark:
    • Det Konservative Folkeparti (KF) (Conservative People's Party);
    • Kristendemokraterne (Christian Democrats)
  • Finland:
    • Kansallinen Kokoomus (KOK) (National Coalition Party);
    • Suomen Kristillisdemokraatit (SK) (Finnish Christian Democrats)
  • Ireland: Fine Gael (FG) (Family of the Irish)
  • Lithuania:
    • Lietuvos Krikšcionys Demokratai (LKD) (Lithuanian Christian Democrats);
    • Tėvynės sąjunga - Lietuvos konservatoriai (TS-LK) (Homeland Union (Lithuanian Conservative Party))
  • Latvia:
    • Tautas Partija (TP) (People's Party);
    • Jaunais Laiks (JL) (New Era)
  • Slovenia:
    • Slovenska demokratska stranka (SDS) (Slovenian Democratic Party);
    • Nova Slovenija Krščanska ljudska stranka (NSi) (New Slovenia);
    • Slovenska ljudska stranka (SLS) (Slovenian People's Party)
  • Estonia: Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit (Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica)
  • Cyprus: Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός (Democratic Rally)
  • Luxembourg: Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei (CSV) (Christian-Social People's Party)
  • Malta: Partit Nazzjonalista (PN) (Nationalist Party)
Notes:
  • Spain: the PP used its clout to block the Basque Nationalist (and Christian Democrat) PNV from joining the EPP. Also note that Unio is, in Spain, allied with Convergencia (a liberal party) in the coalition CiU, and that CiU has some good chances of joining the Socialist PSOE in the government after the next elections.
  • Portugal: the EPP doesn't list the CDS/PP as a member, but wikipedia does include it. I have to admit Barroso and his "social democrats" had me fooled: I always assumed he was a Christian Democrat, until I learnt better recently... Now I know why.
  • Belgium: the EPP doesn't list the N-VA as a member, but wikipedia does.
  • Finland: the SK is currently an observer (not member) party
Neoliberal on the economy and neocon culture warriors on immigration and foreign policy, not to speak of their conservative (Christian) approach to social issues, to me these people are the enemy. Flame away.

Party of the European Socialists

The Party of the European Socialists is a coalition of socialist, social democratic and labour parties from 33 countries, including all EU members plus some others. They recently had their congress, which was diaried here by nanne: The PES Plan for a New Social Europe (December 19th, 2006). It has its own (the second largest) European Parliament group, and its member parties are as follows:
  • Germany: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) Social Democratic Party of Germany
  • France: Parti Socialiste (PS) Socialist Party
  • UK:
    • Labour Party
    • (Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre (SDLP) Social Democratic and Labour Party of Northern Ireland
  • Italy:
    • Democratici di Sinistra (DS) Democrats of the Left;
    • Socialisti Democratici Italiani (SDI) Italian Social Democrats
  • Spain: Partido Socialista Obrero Espańol (PSOE) Spanish Socialist Workers' Party
  • Poland:
    • Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej (SLD) Democratic Left Alliance;
    • Unia Pracy (UP) Labour Union
  • Romania: Partidul Social Democrat (PSD) Social Democrat Party
  • Netherlands: Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA) Labour Party
  • Greece: Πανελλήνιο Σοσιαλιστικό Κίνημα (ΠΑΣΟΚ/PASOK) Panhellenic Socialist Movement
  • Portugal: Partido Socialista (PS) Socialist Party
  • Belgium:
    • Socialistische Partij Anders (sp.a) Socialist Party - Different
    • Parti Socialiste (PS) Socialist Party
  • Czech Republic: Česká strana sociálně demokratická (ČSSD) Czech Social Democratic Party
  • Hungary:
    • Magyar Szocialista Párt (MSzP) Hungarian Socialist Party;
    • Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt (MSzDP) Social Democratic Party of Hungary
  • Sweden: Socialdemokraterna (Sveriges socialdemokratiska arbetareparti, SAP) Swedish Social Democratic Party
  • Austria: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (SPÖ) Social Democratic Party of Austria
  • Bulgaria: Българска социалистическа партия (БСП/BSP) Bulgarian Socialist Party
  • Slovakia: Smer – sociálna demokracia, Social Democracy
  • Denmark: Socialdemokraterne, Social Democrats
  • Finland: Suomen Sosialidemokraattinen Puolue (SDP) Finnish Social Democratic Party
  • Ireland: Páirtí an Lucht Oibre, Irish Labour Party
  • Lithuania: Lietuvos Socialdemokratų Partija (LSDP) Lithuanian Social Democratic Party
  • Latvia: Latvijas Sociāldemokrātiskā Strādnieku Partija (LSDSP) Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party
  • Slovenia: Socialni demokrati (SD) Social Democracy
  • Estonia: Sotsiaaldemokraatlik Erakond (SDE) Social Democratic Party
  • Cyprus: Κινήμα Σοσιαλδημοκρατών (ΕΔΕΚ/EDEK) Movement for Social Democracy
  • Luxembourg: Lëtzebuerger Sozialistesch Arbechterpartei / Parti Ouvrier Socialiste Luxembourgeois (LSAP) Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
  • Malta Partit Laburista (MLP) Malta Labour Party
Notes: Slovakia's Smer was suspended last October for entering a government coalition with the ultra-nationalist Slovak National Party.

The European Socialists have the heart in the right (er... left) place, but on economics they have completely capitulated to the neoliberal consensus, the pensée unique, the third way, or however you want to call it. And, quite apart from giving up the rose, who designed that logo? In many ways they seem spineless to me, when not positively clueless (as in the area of intellectual property and information technology). Regardless, I must confess to being a "captive voter" of Spain's PSOE: the most I will do is abstain, and I will happily vote for them to close the door to the PP. Now, living in the UK where the "allied party" is Labour, which under Blair properly belongs in the EPP, I get to reevaluate my political stance. As I still vote in national elections in Spain I don't have to worry about holding my nose to reelect a Blairite, and can happily vote for Zapatero who is behaving like a true revolutionary.

European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party

The European Liberal Democrats greet the visitor to their website with the slogan "30 years Energising Europe". I wonder whothey got that from... The party brings together political parties with common liberal, democratic and reform ideals from more than 30 European countries and claims to be "the first to create a European political family in 1976 in view of the first European elections". It is the third largest European Political Party, and together with the European Democratic Party (see below, not to be confused with the EPP-associated European Democrats) and others it forms the (also third largest) ALDE European Parliament group. The ELDR's membership includes left-liberals, right-liberals and others. Here's the list:
  • Germany: Freie Demokratische Partei (FDP) Free Democratic Party
  • France: Parti Radical de Gauche, Left Radical Party
  • UK:
    • Liberal Democrats
    • Alliance Party of Northern Ireland
  • Italy:
    • Movimento Repubblicani Europei (MRE) European Republican Movement
    • Radicali Italiani (Ired) Italian Radicals
    • Partito Repubblicano Italiano (PRI) Italian Republican Party
    • Italia dei Valori - Lista di Pietro (LDV) Italy of Values - Di Pietro List
  • Spain:
    • Convergčncia Democrŕtica de Catalunya, Democratic Convergence of Catalonia
    • Unió Mallorquina, Mallorcan Union
  • Poland: Partia Demokratyczna - demokraci.pl (PDem) Democratic Party - demokraci.pl
  • Romania: Partidul Naţional Liberal (PNL) National Liberal Party
  • Netherlands:
    • Democraten 66 (D66) Democrats 66
    • Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (VVD) People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
  • Greece: No member parties.
  • Portugal: No member parties.
  • Belgium:
    • Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (VLD) Flemish Liberals and Democrats
    • Mouvement Réformateur (MR) Reformist Movement
  • Czech Republic: Obcanska demokraticka aliance (ODA) Civic Democratic Alliance
  • Hungary: Szabad Demokraták Szövetsége (SzDSz) Alliance of Free Democrats
  • Sweden:
    • Centerpartiet, Centre Party
    • Folkpartiet Liberalerna, Liberal People's Party
  • Austria: Liberales Forum (LiF) Liberal Forum
  • Bulgaria:
    • Dvizhenie za prava i svobodi (MRF) Movement for Rights and Freedoms
    • Nacionalno Dvizhenie Simeon Vtori (NMSS) National Movement for Simeon II
  • Slovakia: Aliancia Nového Občana (ANO) Alliance of the New Citizen
  • Denmark:
    • Det Radikale Venstre, Radical Left - Social Liberal Party
    • Venstre, Left - Liberal Party
  • Finland:
    • Suomen Keskusta, Centre Party of Finland
    • Svenska Folkpartiet (SF) Swedish People's Party
  • Ireland: Progressive Democrats (PD)
  • Lithuania:
    • Liberalų ir centro sąjunga (LaCU) Liberal and Centre Union
    • Naujoji sąjunga (socialliberalai), New Union Social Liberals
    • Lithuanian Republic Liberal movement (LRP)
  • Latvia: Latvijas Ceļš (LC) Latvian Way
  • Slovenia: Liberalna demokracija Slovenije (LDS) Liberal Democracy of Slovenia
  • Estonia:
    • Eesti Keskerakond (CPE) Centre Party of Estonia
    • Eesti Reformierakond (ERP) Estonian Reform Party
  • Cyprus: Enomeni Dimokrates, (UDM) United Democrats
  • Luxembourg: Demokratesch Partei (DP-Lux) Democratic Party (Luxembourg)
  • Malta: No member parties.
Notes:

  • France: The Parti Radical de Gauche has observer status.
  • UK: the Alliance Party is listed under Northern Ireland in the ELDR's website.
  • Spain: Convergčncia, the senior party of Uniò (see EPP, above) in the CiU coalition, is listed under Catalonia in the ELDR's website.
  • Denmark: Venstre (literally, 'left') was "to the left" at the end of the 19th century. Not having moved much, nowadays it is a right-liberal party. This explains why the left-liberal party needs to call itself 'the radical left'.
  • Lithuania: the LRP is listed on the ELDR website, but with no additional information nor a link to a party website, and wikipedia doesn't record it.
By looking at some countries where more than one liberal party is a member of the ELDR (in particular, the Netherlands, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, or Lithuania) it is clear that economic liberalism is the glue that holds the ELDR together, and that other dimensions such as social policy, or minority rights, are secondary. A number of non-ideological centre-populist ("reform") parties are members of ELDR, too. Personally, I am mildly sympathetic to the social-liberal parties, but as redstar says in the comments, you have to be judged by the company you keep.

European Free Alliance

The European Free Alliance unites progressive, nationalist, regionalist and autonomist parties in the European Union which "subscribe the right of peoples to self-determination and adhere to the principles of parliamentary democracy and human rights". These are left-nationalist parties whose Nation doesn't have a separate State. The nationalist parties representing nation states, and those on the right, are in the eurosceptic Europe Of the Nations party (see below). The EFA forms a European Parliament group together with the European Greens (see below). The list of member parties is below, arranged by State and Nationality/region:
  • Germany: No member parties
  • France:
    • Savoy:
      • Ligue Savoisienne
      • Mouvement Région Savoie
    • Occitania: Partit Occitan
    • Corsica: Partitu di a Nazione Corsa
    • Brittany: Union démocratique bretonne
    • Alsace: Union du Peuple Alsacien
    • Catalans (Rosillon): Unitat Catalana
  • UK
    • Cornwall: Mebyon Kernow
    • Wales: Plaid Cymru
    • Scotland: Scottish National Party
  • Italy:
    • Emilia-Romagna: Libertŕ Emiliana-Nazione Emilia
    • Veneto: Liga Fronte Veneto
    • Sardinia: Partido Sardo d'Azione
    • Slovenes (Trieste, Gorizia): Slovenska Skupnost
    • South Tyrol: Union für Südtirol
    • Aosta Valley: Union Valdôtaine
  • Spain:
    • Galicia: Bloque Nacionalista Galego
    • Aragon: Chunta Aragonesista
    • Catalonia: Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
    • Basque Country: Eusko Alkartasuna
    • Andalusia: Partido Andalucista
  • Poland: Silesia: Ruch Autonomii Śląska
  • Romania: No member parties
  • Netherlands: Friesland: Fryske Nasjonale Partij
  • Greece: Macedonians: Vinozhito Rainbow Party
  • Portugal: No member parties
  • Belgium: Flanders: Spirit
  • Czech Republic: No member parties
  • Hungary, Sweden: No member parties
  • Austria: Slovenes: Enotna Lista
  • Bulgaria, Slovakia, Denmark: No member parties
  • Finland: Ĺland: Ĺlands Framtid
  • Ireland: No member parties
  • Lithuania: Poles: Lithuanian Polish People's Party
  • Latvia, Slovenia, Estonia, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Malta: No member parties.
Notes: Wikipedia incorrectly (I think) lists Eusko Alkartasuna as operating both in Spain and France. This is possibly the result of conflating the fact that the "Greater" Basque Country straddles the border with where the political party operates. In the 1970's and 80's there was a weak ETA counterpart in the French Basque Country, called Iparretarrak (the Northerners), and I am surprised that there is not any remnant of it. That shows just how weak Basque nationalism is in the French Basque Country.

I suppose I don't have a lot more to say on this group than that there are far fewer parties represented here than ManfromMiddletown gave credit to in his diary How many nations in Europe?

European Green Party

The European Green Party is an alliance of over 30 green parties from all over Europe, but does not include any of the parties of the Nordic Green Left (which are more Left than Green). In the European Parliament, the European Greens form a group together with the European Free Alliance (see above). The list of members and observers of the European Greens includes:
  • Germany: Bündnis 90/Die Grünen
  • France: Les Verts
  • UK:
    • Green Party of England and Wales
    • Green Party in Northern Ireland
    • Scottish Green Party
    • Manx Green Party (observer)
  • Italy: Federazione dei Verdi
  • Spain:
    • Confederación de Los Verdes
    • Iniciativa per Catalunya - Verds
    • Federación de Los Verdes–Izquierda Verde (observer)
  • Poland: Zieloni 2004
  • Romania: Federaţia Ecologistă din România
  • Netherlands: De Groenen
  • Greece: Ecologists Greens
  • Portugal: Os Verdes
  • Belgium:
    • Groen!
    • Ecolo
  • Hungary: Zöld Demokraták
  • Sweden: Miljöpartiet de Gröna
  • Austria: Die Grünen
  • Czech Republic: Strana zelených
  • Bulgaria: Bulgarian Green Party
  • Slovakia: Strana Zelenych na Slovensku
  • Denmark:
    • De Grřnne
    • Socialistisk Folkeparti, Socialist People's Party (observer, member of the Nordic Green Left)
  • Finland: Vihreät
  • Ireland: Green Party
  • Lithuania: No member party
  • Latvia: Latvijas Zala Partija
  • Slovenia: Stranka mladih Slovenije, Youth Party of Slovenia (observer)
  • Estonia: Estonian Greens
  • Cyprus: Cyprus Green Party
  • Luxembourg: Déi Gréng
  • Malta: Alternattiva Demokratika
According to wikipedia,
Critics have suggested that the European Greens do not yet amount to a single party: in particular the different national components have a widely different approach to the European Union ranging from strong pro-European forces to eurosceptics.
In my opinion, this criticism misses the point completely: the fact that these parties don't have a common position on the European Union just means that the Eurosceptic/Europeist axis is of secondary or even tertiary importance to the environmentalism dimension. The EPP-ED European Parliament group also doesn't agree on the European Union, which seems to be secondary to conservatism and the more pragmatic complementary needs of the Tories to have a group and the EPP to be able to claim MEPs from all members states.

Alliance for the Europe of the Nations

The Alliance for the Europe of the Nations brings together (extreme) rightist nationalist parties representing nations with their own Nation-State, and it is the core of the Union for the Europe of the Nations European Parliament group. It is not exactly Eurosceptic as its members believe in a united but not uniform Europe, mobilised for great causes, governed by the values of western civilization and guided by humanist principles. However, they do oppose supranational European governance, believing in separately homogeneous nation states. The whole thing has a distinct fascist feel. Its members include:
  • Germany: No member party
  • France: Rassemblement pour la France, Rally For France
  • UK: No member parties
  • Italy: Alleanza Nazionale, National Alliance
  • Spain: No member parties
  • Poland: Prawo i Sprawiedliwość, Law and Justice
  • Romania: Partidul National Liberal (PNL) National Liberal Party
  • Netherlands, Greece, Portugal, Belgium: No member parties
  • Hungary: Magyar Vidék és Polgári Párt (MVPP) Hungarian Provincial and Civic Party
  • Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic: No member parties
  • Bulgaria: National Ideal for Unity Party (NIU)
  • Slovakia: Hnutie za demokraciu Movement for Democracy
  • Denmark: Dansk Folkeparti, Danish People's Party
  • Finland: No member parties
  • Ireland: Fianna Fáil, Soldiers of Destiny
  • Lithuania:
    • Lietuvos valstiečių liaudininkų sąjunga, Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union
    • Tvarka ir teisingumas, Order and Justice
  • Latvia: Tēvzemei un Brīvībai/LNNK, Fatherland and Freedom
  • Slovenia: No member parties
  • Estonia: Eestimaa Rahvaliit, People's Union of Estonia
  • Cyprus: Agonistiko Dimokratiko Kinima (ADiK) Fighting Democratic Movement
  • Luxembourg: Action fir demokratie und socialer gerechtegeret (ADR) Action for Democracy and Social Justice/Alternative Democratic Reform Party
  • Malta: No member parties
Notes: Romania's PNL is not listed by Wikipedia, but appears on the AEN website.

We poked some good-natured fun at Fianna Fail for being allied with these fascists in this recent thread. It is well known that Fianna Fail is actually uncomfortable in Europe of the Nations. According to Colman, the problem is that Fine Gael [EPP] and Fianna Fail are ideologically very close but cannot be in the same European Party or Group because of something to do with a civil war 85 years ago. Interestingly, Fianna Fail is expected to attempt to leave the AEN and join another European Parliament group following the 2009 EP elections.

Party of the European Left

The Party of the European Left is an alliance of Socialist and reformed Communist parties, to the left of the Social Democratic PES, not including the Nordic Green Left with which it forms a European Parliament group. The European Left...:
...demands another Europe,
  • a Europe that says no to war and militarization. ...
  • a Europe that defends the social states and renews it, ...
  • a Europe of diverse cultures, of freedom of spirit, a Europe open to the world. ...
  • a Europe open to the world that resists capitalist globalisation. ...
  • a democratic Europe. ...
Its member parties include:
  • Germany: Die Linkspartei (Linke-PDS), The Left Party
  • France: Parti Communiste Français (PCF) French Communist Party
  • UK: No member parties
  • Italy: Rifondazione Communista, Communist Refoundation
  • Spain:
    • Izquierda Unida, United Left
    • Partido Comunista de Espańa, Spain's Communist Party
    • Esquerra Unida i Alternativa, Alternative and United Left
  • Poland: No member parties
  • Romania: Partidul Alianţa Socialistă, Socialist Alliance Party
  • Netherlands: No member parties
  • Greece: ΣΥΝΑΣΠΙΣΜΟΣ, Coalition of Left, of Movements and Ecology
  • Portugal: Bloco de Esquerda Portugal, Left Bloc
  • Belgium: Parti Communiste (Wallonie), Communist Party (Wallonia)
  • Hungary: Magyar Kommunista Munkáspárt, Hungarian Communist Workers' Party
  • Sweden: No member parties
  • Austria: Kommunistische Partei Österreichs, Austria's Communist Party
  • Czech Republic: Strana demokratického socialismu, Party of Democratic Socialism
  • Bulgaria, Slovakia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Lithuania, Latvia, Slovenia: No member parties
  • Estonia: Eesti Vasakpartei (EVP) Estonian Left Party
  • Cyprus: No member parties
  • Luxembourg: déi lénk, The Left
  • Malta: No member parties

European Democratic Party

The European Democratic Party (not to be confused with the European Democrats half of the EPP-ED parliamentary group, which is Eurosceptic) is a centrist (social-liberal) pro-EU group of parties, and sits together with the ELDR (See above) in the ALDE group of the European Parliament. It calls itself a a new political force which is devoted to the promotion of European integration. Wikipedia lists member parties in 7 EU states, but the party's website only lists 6 (missing the Lithuanian member). Wikipedia also lists it among the parties that have received EU funding in 2005. The member parties are:
  • France: Union pour la Démocratie Française (UDF) Union for French Democracy
  • Italy: Democrazia č Libertŕ-La Margherita, Daisy - Democracy and Freedom
  • Spain: Euzko Alderdi Jeltzalea/Partido Nacionalista Vasco (EAJ/PNV) Basque Nationalist Party
  • Czech Republic: Cesta Zmeny, Path of Change
  • Belgium: Mouvement des Citoyens pour le changement, Citizens' Movement for Change
  • Lithuania: Darbo Partija, Labour Party
  • Cyprus: Ευρωπαϊκό Κόμμα, European Party

Eurosceptics

The Eurosceptic "Independence and Democracy" parliamentary group has finally gotten around to organising itself into political parties. There is an embryonic Alliance of Independent Democrats in Europe, and the better organised EUDemocrats. As of yet, it seems neither of them can claim party status under the EU regulations, but at least EUDemocrats should achieve that status soon. It is quite likely that the Tories will leave the EPP-ED parliamentary group after 2009, and that they will try to form an alternative group and party. It might be EUDemocrats, which already counts one Tory MEP as an individual member.

Poll
What is your party?
. European People's Party 0%
. Party of the European Socialists 15%
. European Liberal Democrat and Reform 7%
. European Free Alliance 0%
. European Greens 46%
. Alliance for the Europe of the Nations 0%
. European Left 7%
. European Democratic Party 15%
. Eurosceptic 0%
. None of the above (see comment) 7%

Votes: 13
Results | Other Polls
Display:
Seriously, what specifically do they represent that makes them objectionable?

So long as they aren't trying to compel others to renounce their faiths and join the state religion, I find that threat from traditional conservatives far less threatening than the neo-liberal threat.  I would rather argue with a man who recognizes that intrinstic value of human life, than be force to work with people who think the aquisituion of wealth is the measure of a man (and a people's worth.)

What I do think is dangerious is when you throw national identity into the mix.  Like the way that certain sectors of the PP  respond to the Basques and Catalans.  I sincerely believe the if they had the chance, there is a large minority within the PP that would justify the ethnic cleasing of populations that refused to adhere stringently to a very Castillian view of what it means to be Spanish.

And I'll give my consent to any government that does not deny a man a living wage-Billy Bragg

by ManfromMiddletown (manfrommiddletown at lycos dot com) on Tue Dec 26th, 2006 at 09:00:36 PM EST
The EPPers are neoliberal on the economy and neocon culture warriors on immigration and foreign policy. It was disgusting to see them wet their pants with pleasure at Israel's bombing of Lebanon.

Sarkozy, Berlusconi, Aznar, Balkenende, Barroso, Klaus, Rasmussen... Are you kidding me?

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 04:16:56 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Heh, strike out Rasmussen, he's from venstre.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 04:18:39 AM EST
[ Parent ]
True, but we are also judged by the company we keep.
by redstar on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 08:16:30 AM EST
[ Parent ]


And I'll give my consent to any government that does not deny a man a living wage-Billy Bragg
by ManfromMiddletown (manfrommiddletown at lycos dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 08:25:13 PM EST
[ Parent ]
LOL

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:46:13 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I think you seriously underestimate the corrupting power of our post-feudal, semi-clerical, nationalist and authoritarian conservatives. The PP is not that much of an exception as you think. (And I wonder on what you base what you think: the Italian or British or all ex-East-Bloc conservatives are positively lunatic, and the German CDU and French UMP, while more civilised, aint' that droll either.) I hate their guts like Migeru does, and more so than even the neoliberals, I guess like Marek does.

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
by DoDo on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 03:29:46 PM EST
[ Parent ]
They are also more dangerous than, say, the fascists of the Alliance for the Europe of the Nations because the EPP vies with the PES for the position of largest party in Europe, and right now they are.

By the way, the Tories are in a class of their own, more nasty while still mainstream conservative. There are no British parties in the EPP, because the EPP is, after all, pro-EU. However, they have no problem making a European Parliament group with the notoriously eurosceptic Tories (and the European Democrats, a shell around them) so they can claim to be the only parliamentary group with MEPs from all member states, and secure their place as largest group.

There are so many ideological strands within the EPP (Christian Democrat, Liberal, Conservative nationalist) that I can't figure our what keeps them together other than power, and meanness.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 05:18:00 PM EST
[ Parent ]
It is even better.. in Spain we follow the consensus but we approve laws to increase the level of stability in jobs...and economic policy is not neoliberal..just liberal with a bubble touch on housing.
...and still they are clueless on transportation and intellectual property as you said.

A pleasure

I therefore claim to show, not how men think in myths, but how myths operate in men's minds without their being aware of the fact. Levi-Strauss, Claude

by kcurie on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 06:49:36 AM EST
Apparently in Belgium [see this recent comment by Elco B] and Germany they also have a strong consensus model on social policy.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 06:54:43 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Can you find a difference between Rato and Solbes on economic policy? I can't.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 06:57:07 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Not really..except for the new labor law. this was a big difference. But rato was not tough neoliberal

I also expected another big difference that I do not see. I expected a more strong fight agains the housing bubble given that the economy is overheated and growing at 4% (which for an economy as big as Spain is humongous). I expected a strong attack against bubble in the corruption front (sort of started) but also on the fiscal front and in the prosecutation of other black markets...Spain has half of the 500 euros bills in Europe...which in turn buy houses...and hotels..

A pleasure

I therefore claim to show, not how men think in myths, but how myths operate in men's minds without their being aware of the fact. Levi-Strauss, Claude

by kcurie on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 11:32:46 AM EST
[ Parent ]
You're right. Solbes made some moises about the economic model being "unsustainable" but he hasn't really done much about it. And there are rumours that he'd like to leave the government because of disagreements with Zapatero over economic policy, on which the latter doesn't know much.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 11:59:18 AM EST
[ Parent ]
He's done some overtures to try to invest more on research and technology but with all the investment money going to the house bubble there is no way he can succeed.

He has explained clearly that he wouldlike the house prices to stabilize and have zero growth (2 points below inflation) to get rid of the "Investment money" int he sector and the overheat....but we do nto know what would be his favourite mechanisms.. ti seems that high interest rates is all he wants.. adn at least there is no movement for a massive investment in new public houses..

Trains, public housing and technology should get priority over health-care and roads...but in Spain we love to abuse free medicine and free roads...so do not even mention a slight co-payment. This is the par of the liberal agenda I would love to see implemented...but it is not.

A pleasure

I therefore claim to show, not how men think in myths, but how myths operate in men's minds without their being aware of the fact. Levi-Strauss, Claude

by kcurie on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 12:06:17 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Interest rates impinge equally on all investment. As long as the housing bubble is perceived as more profitable than other investment, changing interest rates won't correct the problem, unless he is content to squeeze individual homebuyers. In addition, interest rates are set by the ECB, which is politically independent.

Measures that might work are: 1) cracking down on absentee owners, taxing empty properties; 2) cracking down on aggressive lending, with "good regulation"; 3) public investment in housing.

But these are unpalatable to orthodox economists like Solbes, not because they don't work but because they entail government intervention.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 12:47:10 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Trains, public housing and technology should get priority over health-care and roads...but in Spain we love to abuse free medicine and free roads...so do not even mention a slight co-payment. This is the par of the liberal agenda I would love to see implemented...but it is not.

Didn't Catalunya introduce a per visit fee for the regional health service?

And I'll give my consent to any government that does not deny a man a living wage-Billy Bragg

by ManfromMiddletown (manfrommiddletown at lycos dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 12:24:04 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Yes, it is the only one, and also for pharmaceuticals. But elder people are not included so elder people are the primary users of condoms...or so it was two years ago....maybe they already solved this little hole.. but anthibiotiucs free for all the family is still a must.

A pleasure

I therefore claim to show, not how men think in myths, but how myths operate in men's minds without their being aware of the fact. Levi-Strauss, Claude

by kcurie on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 11:40:50 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Migeru, I'm not sure I agree 100% with the last para. First, not all of their hearts are in the right place, else how to explain Tony Bliar?

And second, I think some of the member-state parties are cautiously moving away from the pensee unique, at least I like to think the PS is in advance of elections (in which I have effectively already voted  so I'm hoping anyhow along these lines).

by redstar on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 08:20:55 AM EST
I don't expect 100% agreement. Who do you think I am? Lenin?

But I do agree 100% with your comment. The European Socialists have wasted 15 precious years and are only now waking up from the slumber.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 08:50:13 AM EST
[ Parent ]
My laptop crashed and I lost the Liberal Democrats. Luckily I had only done 3 of 27 countries... Back to square one...

People, this is ridiculous, this diary is not even finished and it's already on top of the recommended diary list. But it's also encouraging. Onwards!

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 08:52:32 AM EST
Bob, this is a Work in Progress, would you mind taking it off the front page?

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 09:54:43 AM EST
Now finished, with poll

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 07:56:44 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Neoliberal on the economy and neocon culture warriors on immigration and foreign policy, not to speak of their conservative (Christian) approach to social issues, to me these people are the enemy.

But sometimes the lesser evil - I would have voted PO last year rather than wasting my vote on the PD. As for the SLD - combine the worst of Blair's ideological neoliberalism minus the anti-poverty measures, add old Italian CDU style corruption, clientism and some ties to organized crime, and then embody it in the ex- Party apparatchiks of the old dictatorship... not really that great a choice either.

by MarekNYC on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 01:58:37 PM EST
What can I say? Progressive Poles have my condolences, and I am sure that there's a congressional district out there where the Conservative Republican is a lesser evil than the Democrat but that doesn't mean I have to like the party's positions.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 02:09:24 PM EST
[ Parent ]
and I am sure that there's a congressional district out there where the Conservative Republican is a lesser evil than the Democrat but that doesn't mean I have to like the party's positions.

There was the 1990 Mass. gubernatorial race of William Weld vs. John Silber. In today's terms that would be Linc Chafee vs. Zell Miller. I would definately have voted for Weld. And I did vote for whatever Repub was running against Marion Barry in DC and whatever Repub was going up against Buddy Cianci in Providence (friendly guy - first stint in office every single one of his close aids went down on racketeering charges, he himself pled guilty to beating his wife's lover with a poker and putting cigarettes out on his face while a mobbed up cop held him down, after getting out he won reelection with the campaign slogan "I want to make love to the city of Providence") I don't think that the cemetery vote was decisive. He recently went back to jail on racketeering. A friend of a friend had his restaurant torched after he refused to comp the mayor and his buddies for a champagne fuelled bash.

by MarekNYC on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 04:17:48 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I corrected some html errors (image placement!) and spelling errors in some of the Hungarian parties' names (for liberal SzDSz, the even got the acronym wrong, while for SocDem MSzP, they even knew how to render double letters in acronyms).

Regarding the Lithuanian liberal party "LRP", I'm pretty certain that it is a corrupted reference to Lietuvos Respublikos liberalų sąjūdis (Lithuanian Republic Liberal Movement), earliuer just called "Lithuanian Republic liberal Political group", a breakaway from the Liberal and Centre Union.

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.

by DoDo on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 05:14:15 PM EST
Thanks.

I am using both Wikipedia and the European Parties' own websites, and it's hard to tell which one is more up to date, or more correct or complete [it is pretty sad when wikipedia has more information than a political party's own website].

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 05:20:34 PM EST
[ Parent ]
On the turbulent developments within the Lithuanian Parliament, I found even Wiki is not up to date.

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
by DoDo on Wed Dec 27th, 2006 at 05:30:11 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Why did you left off Polish LPR?

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
by DoDo on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 08:46:13 AM EST
What's its European party?

According to wikipedia, it has 5 MEP in the Union for the Europe of the Nations, 2 in Independence and Democracy, and 3 unattached. But these are parliamentary groups and the LPR doesn't belong to the Alliance for the Europe of the Nations political party.

Another party I left out is the Tories.

I was thinking I'd do the European Parliament groups in Part III.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 12:54:30 PM EST
[ Parent ]
What is your party?

The European Pirate Party. Opps, EPP taken.

Well then, the Pirate Party of Europe or Europirates! for short.

(Questions regarding names might already have been settled over at the Pirates International HQ but I have not been following everything.)

(b) it must be represented, in at least one quarter of Member States, by Members of the European Parliament or in the national Parliaments or regional Parliaments or in the regional assemblies, or
it must have received, in at least one quarter of the Member States, at least three per cent of the votes cast in each of those Member States at the most recent European Parliament elections;

Ok, it might take a while before Europirates! receives EU funding. But you have got to start soemwhere.

A vote for PES is a vote for EPP! A vote for EPP is a vote for PES! Support the coalition, vote EPP-PES in 2009!

by A swedish kind of death on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 11:31:25 AM EST
As far as I'm concerned, if you can field candidates in 7 member states you can call yourself a "European Political Party". If you then fail to get 3% of the vote you won't get funding, but that is a different story.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:26:42 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The PRG is really a satellite of the PS - it's a bit strange to see them linked to another group.

I have never heard of all the regional parties you mention, and I seriously doubt they have any meaningful representativity. They're certainly not in the European Parliament - or if they are, they came in riding some other party's coattails (most likely the National Front).

In the long run, we're all dead. John Maynard Keynes

by Jerome a Paris (etg@eurotrib.com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 11:54:57 AM EST
Could it be a hangover from the 4th Republic? When the European political groups were first set up the French Radicals were a more significant force than they are today. It may be they just stayed where they were in Europe while French domestic politics changed around them.
by Gary J on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 12:41:38 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Most of the small parties listed do not have MEPs. I suppose I'll address the MEPs in Part 3.

Also, the nationalist parties in the European Free Alliance are broadly left, they probably wouldn't get caught dead with the FN.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 12:56:43 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The Ligue Savoisienne Made some noise in 1998 when its representative along with the hunter's held the balance of votes between the right wing and the left wing in the Rhone Alpes regional council. Then Charles Millon allied with the Front National...

Which means the party had got about 5 % of votes in Savoy ; it seems local representative had similar results in Basques country and in Corsica.

Un roi sans divertissement est un homme plein de misčres

by linca (antonin POINT lucas AROBASE gmail.com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:35:35 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Migueru objects:

And, quite apart from giving up the rose, who designed that logo?

Well, here is the logo:

What you show above is NOT the PES logo, but the activists web presence logo.

Also, you uncritically copy the PPE folkore baloney about their "deeply rooted in the past of our continent's history."

This is factually not true - the CDU was founded by the US secret services in occupied Germany only 60 years ago, and so was the DC in Italy. The Spanish and Portugese Conservative Parties didn't even exist then. Idem in Hellas.

The only party(ies) who are somewhat deep rooted are the SPD (150 years) and other socialist and labour parties.

The only one who can claim to be truly deep rooted in our continent's history runs also a radio station.

The pope's radio station:

http://www.radiovaticana.org/ted/diretta.asp

Link to their hot live stream - the night prayer session will kick in shortly! Introduced by St Peter Cathedral's bells!

http://www.radiovaticana.org/en1/FM105_ing.asp

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819

by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:15:11 PM EST
You are confusing the Party of the European Socialists with the European Parliament group of the Party of the European Socialists. They have different logos.

Regarding the "EPP floklore", I chose to quote what the various parties say about themselves. To me their "rooted in our continent's history" is just a codefor their "Europe is a Cristian Club" claptrap, and I point that out. Their whole page is full of disingenuous bullshit, but the point of this diary was not to deconstruct their webpage. I have better things to do with my time.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:24:38 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Migueru, you referred to the PSE and NOT to the party group. I gave you the PSE logo. Do you want other logos, too?

Well, I'm busy now - the Latin prayer session has just begun. I will come back to you later.

Want quality time?

Click:

http://www.radiovaticana.org/en1/FM105_ing.asp

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819

by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:47:18 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Let me see...

Where in the website www.pse.org is the logo you pointed out?

On the other hand, http://www.socialistgroup.eu/ prominently displays the logo you refer to.

The diary is about the political parties according to the EU funding definition. Careful distinctions are made between parties and parliamentary groups, where appropriate.

I know there are other logos, for instance the Socialist International retains the traditional rose-in-fist logo.

Nothing to see here, ritter, move on.

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 04:55:07 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I mean http://www.pes.org/

Those whom the Gods wish to destroy They first make mad. -- Euripides
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 05:03:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Okay - the Latin prayer session is over now.

I am member of the PES and carry occasionally the party logo on my leather jacket. The one with the rose. I picked it up at their HQ in Troolaan a couple of months ago. The Socialist Group at the EP has the same logo.

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819

by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 05:26:50 PM EST
[ Parent ]
If I recall well the popes holed up in their Vatican to pout for several decades before Benedict XV let his flock acknowledge the existence of the state and finally allow them to participate in politics. That would make Christian inspired parties quite young compared to other parties.
by de Gondi (publiobestia aaaatttthotmaildaughtusual) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 05:44:41 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I never thought to see it, but it has happened. The Pope is now politically left to the US Democrats - against land mines, against the death penalty, against wars of aggression against 'terror', for the supremacy of the individual over the free trade of goods, und so weiter...

Pace ed eguaglianza tra i popoli - the Pope doctrine.

And the Vatican is currently fighting for the life of Saddam Hussein...

More hot stuff - and far more revolutionary than AirAmericaRadio:

http://www.radiovaticana.org/img_common/audio2.gif

Wow, tomorrow is San Tomaso Beckett day!




"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819

by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 06:04:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Did not the political history of Catholic political parties, in the more Catholic societies of Western Europe, start in the nineteenth century with Catholic Conservative parties. They opposed anti-clerical Liberal parties. Later the rise of Socialist/Social Democratic parties began the development of multi-party politics.

Somewhat more left wing Catholic inspired parties developed in the first third of the twentieth century, like the Centre Party in Germany and the Peoples Party in Italy. These were at least part of the traditions which became the post Second World War Christian Democrats.

by Gary J on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 06:40:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Well, they were not exactly 'somewhat more left wing inspired Catholic parties' because they voted in the case of the Zentrum for Hitler's Ermächtigungsgesetz. This discredited them. Obviously. And they never came back after WWII.

A little bit like the US Democrats who gave Bush the power to wage pre-emptive wars of aggression and to do away with the US Constitution.

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819

by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 06:50:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Wow, Pavarotti on Vatican Radio sings now Xmas songs!

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819
by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 06:52:15 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Ratzinger chose the name Benedict XVI presumably to follow in the steps of Benedict XV (1914-1922). Benedict XV was a modernizer, best remembered for his staunch pacifist position in the Great War. He's considered one of the great popes of the 20th century.

As Gary J below, he was the first pope to "recognize" political activity by Catholic movements in lay states. In 1919 he approved the foundation of the Partito Populare Italiano, precursor of the post-war Democrat-Christians.

by de Gondi (publiobestia aaaatttthotmaildaughtusual) on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 07:00:12 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Yeah, he owns a great radio station and a good football team. A friend of mine, from the Capitolinian Archives, organized matches vs the Swiss Guard. The VC radio news are better than what I hear on BBC and Deutsche Welle. And they still speak Latin. Great stuff!

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819
by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 07:27:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]
And now Schubert!

"The USA appears destined by fate to plague America with misery in the name of liberty." Simon Bolivar, Caracas, 1819
by Ritter on Thu Dec 28th, 2006 at 07:30:05 PM EST
[ Parent ]


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