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Drought aggravated Amazon closer to tipping point of collapse

by Magnifico Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 06:08:14 AM EST

The Amazon rainforests suffered a devastating drought last year. This was the second one-in-100 year drought since 2005 for the rainforests. News of the drought was left unreported by The New York Times and most other American media corporations, but ignoring it will not make its troubling global impact disappear.

Researchers from the U.K. and Brazil analyzed a decade of satellite-derived rainfall data to compare the two droughts and have just published their findings on the 2010 Amazon Drought in Science this week. They found that the 2010 drought was worse than the 2005 drought and predict the dying trees will release significantly more CO2 into the atmosphere than did the dying trees five years earlier.

The massive tree deaths are prompting fears that the Amazon is at its 'climate tipping point', The Guardian reports. Meaning the dying Amazon will flip from being a carbon sink to a major carbon source, emitting CO2 as its trees die from drought, then rot or catch fire and burn. "Such a feedback loop could cause runaway climate change, with disastrous consequences."

frontpaged - Nomad


Amazonian droughts can trigger huge CO2 emissions. The tree die-off from the 2005 drought caused the release of 5 billion tonnes of CO2 and the researchers predict CO2 emitted as a result of the 2010 drought will be higher. The United States emitted 5.4 billion tonnes of CO2 in 2009 for comparison. As much as 1.3 tonnes of CO2 are absorbed by the world's rainforests each year, "almost 20 percent of carbon emissions from fossil-fuel burning," noted The Great Beyond blog at Nature.

Above: Drought in the Amazon (1 month assessment period, through 16 October 2010).
Source: University College London Global Drought Monitor via WWF.

"Having two events of this magnitude in such close succession is extremely unusual, but is unfortunately consistent with those climate models that project a grim future for Amazonia," said lead author Simon Lewis, from the University of Leeds, in a press release.

The new research predicts the Amazon rainforests will not absorb from the atmosphere their usual 1.5 billion tons of CO2 in both 2010 and 2011. A further 5 billion tonnes of CO2 is predicted to be released from the trees killed by the drought as they rot.

"Two unusual and extreme droughts occurring within a decade may largely offset the carbon absorbed by intact Amazon forests during that time. If events like this happen more often, the Amazon rainforests would reach a point where it shifts from being a valuable carbon sink slowing climate change, to a major source of greenhouse gasses that could speed it up," Lewis added.

As part of the new research, Lewis and Paulo Brando, of the Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia (IPAM) in Belém, Brazil, "used the known relationship between drought intensity in 2005 and tree deaths to estimate the impact of the 2010 drought."

"We will not know exactly how many trees were killed until we can complete forest measurements on the ground," Brando said. "Our results should be seen as an initial estimate. The emissions estimates do not include those from forest fires, which spread over extensive areas of the Amazon during hot and dry years. These fires release large amounts of carbon to the atmosphere."

Unfortunately, Amazonian droughts may become more frequent and intense in coming decades, according to earlier research by Brando.

The 2010 drought reduced rainfall over 1.16 million square-miles (3 million square km) of the rainforests, compared with 734,000 square miles (1.9 million square km) in the 2005 drought, Reuters reported that the study had found. "57 percent of Amazonia had low rainfall in 2010 as compared with 37 percent in 2005", the researchers wrote.

The Rio Negro in Brazil reached a record low in 2010. This tributary to the Amazon, observed by the Earth Observatory at NASA, "is significantly smaller in 2010 than in 2008. The most notable difference is in the braided channels northwest of Manaus. Many of the channels disappeared in 2010, and all are shrunken. The main body of the river near Manaus is narrower. Every body of water in the scene, including the Amazon River, also changed. Tan islands dot the Amazon where water had been in 2008."

Rio Negro in December 2008, source: NASA image.

Rio Negro in December 2010, source: NASA image.

The record low came just 16 months after the river set a record high of more than 97 feet (29.77 meters) that flooded Manaus. In January 2011, far away from Manaus, south-eastern Brazil had massive floods. If wetter areas become wetter and drier areas become drier from climate change, an region that has rainy and dry seasons experience those extremes more intensely with increasing regularity.

Amazonian droughts have grown more frequent and severe, the Global Post reports.

"The ecosystems here have become so dry that instead of a being a barrier to fire, the forest became kindling," said Foster Brown, an environmental scientist at the federal university in the Brazilian state of Acre. "We've changed from a situation where a relatively small part of the region would be susceptible to fire to the entire region being susceptible to fire."

The two extreme droughts fit climate model predictions for the Amazon. "Under the more extreme scenarios, large parts of the forest could turn into a savannah-like ecosystem by the middle of the century with much lower levels of animal and plant biodiversity." Lewis and others are investigating if the droughts are an anomaly or driven by climate change. If the drought's cause is global warming, then it "could quite rapidly move to a much drier Amazon with less forest there," Lewis said.

"If greenhouse gas emissions contribute to Amazon droughts that in turn cause forests to release carbon, this feedback loop would be extremely concerning," Lewis said. "Put more starkly, current emissions pathways risk playing Russian roulette with the world's largest rainforest."

The rainforests' transformation to cerrado, the Brazilian savanna, "may happen faster than that study projected given the droughts of 2005 and 2010," Daniel Nepstad, a tropical biologist at IPAM, told the Inter Press Service.

A year ago, the World Bank predicted "with more certainty than any other prior study" that the Amazon is "very close" to the tippling point of dieback. The Amazon is "very close (about 2-3 percent of total deforestation) to a tipping point of combined events that will lead ultimately to its collapse", the World Bank report found.

A policy of zero deforestation is considered an emergency, although insufficient measure to stabilize the process.  The effects of climate change alone would contribute to the reduction of the extent of the rainforest biome by one third by the end of the century, according to the report. Brazil will depend on others (namely the US and China) to stabilize global carbon density to ultimately to save the Amazon and in turn stabilize a key feedback loop to the global climate.

Between 16 and 17 percent of Amazon rainforests have already been destroyed by deforestation, Mongabay reports. "Logging, clearing, fragmentation, and human-started fires are common occurrences in parts of Amazonian... Although deforestation has slowed recently, it has not stopped. Combined with climate change, these on the ground changes could further push some regions to large-scale forest die-off."

There has been an overall 25 percent decline in rainfall in the southeastern Amazon over the past four years, Nepstad said. The dryness has sparked huge forest fires that cover up to 3,860 square miles (10,000 square km) and the smoke inhibits rainfall, causing more drying the forests.

"Forests diebacks are taking place all around the world. The evidence is quite sobering," Nepstad said.

"I've never seen a year like this," said Mariazinha Yawanawa told the Global Post. She is the first female village chief of the remote Mutum community in Acre in far western Brazil. "Every morning, when all the family members meet, we're asking each other, 'What is happening?'"

"Everything has changed. We don't know when we can plant. We plant and then the sun kills everything," Mariazinha said. "If it continues like this, we expect a tragedy."

And the point she pressed upon her visitors was, perhaps they should be worried, too.

"I ask you," she said, "as someone who lives in the outside world who knows the tragedy that's happening there -- is there anything we can do?"

I think there is much we can do about climate change, but every action we could take involves people change. Perhaps a more pointed question to ask would be -- is there anything that we will do?

Display:
As the world proceeds towards disaster it gives me no pleasure at all to say, "I told you so."

What we need to be seeing is a global emergency response and we're getting quibbles and lies from the SeriousPeople©.  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Fri Feb 4th, 2011 at 03:46:59 PM EST
Nice to have someone on the same side.

You might find me At The Edge Of Time.
by Luis de Sousa (luis[dot]a[dot]de[dot]sousa[at]gmail[dot]com) on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 12:14:48 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The "you" is directed towards my fellow Americans who sat on their fat asses while big business raped the planet.  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 01:06:39 PM EST
[ Parent ]
But everything's fine, and global warming is a myth.  Don't you watch Fox News?  Or are you one o' them thar Commies gittin' yer news from them librul communislamofascist news places?
by rifek on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 01:51:39 PM EST
[ Parent ]
At this rate Hanson's "hockey stick" chart could prove to be conservative. From tropical rain forests to the permafrost we can only wonder how long the transition will take and what it would take to slow it down. Policy seems firmly in the grip of the worshipers of Hypnos and Thanatos.

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 11:12:54 AM EST
The Hockey Stick was invented by Michael Mann, not Hansen. Hansen made a few temperatures predication back in the day when he started working for Al Gore. Needless to say they were all a failure.

You might find me At The Edge Of Time.
by Luis de Sousa (luis[dot]a[dot]de[dot]sousa[at]gmail[dot]com) on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 12:16:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Thanks for the correction. I assume the failure to which you refer is the failure to convince TPTB.

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 12:21:57 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Hansen's global temperature projections, particularly the ones he made in 1988, are not particularly great. The below picture is from a 2009 Real Climate post on that claim.

Key mistake in his 1988 estimates was using a higher climate sensitivity. With the current uptick in global temperatures last year, we're back into Hansen's scenario C, but just barely.

What always frustrates me in this particular topic that's beaten to death, particularly on sceptic websites, is that I can't seem to find a graph like this with standard deviations added. And of course Hansen has made other projections since.

Yet, at first glance, the temperature records are indicating so far that Hansen's 1988 projections weren't too good.

by Nomad on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 04:41:14 PM EST
[ Parent ]
If these are 1988 predictions given the limitations, how are they a failure? I mean compared to who else who was making projections at the time? As you point out scenario C is on track. In 1988 I assume that climate modeling was much less nuanced. That one of his 1988 scenarios is absolutely compatible with the data is spectacular it seems to me.
By the way Real Climate has updated their model-data comparisons including the Hansen 1988 model, here.

The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom - William Blake
by talos (mihalis at gmail dot com) on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:07:39 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Scenario 3 is unrealistic - see the reply to comment #3 at that post.
by det on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:13:42 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Oops ... "C"
by det on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:14:08 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Regarding the value of the models, see the reply to comment #1.
by det on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:19:27 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Yep, I shouldn't have skipped the discussion. Thanks!

The road of excess leads to the palace of wisdom - William Blake
by talos (mihalis at gmail dot com) on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:23:21 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I didn't write they are a "failure", I wrote that they aren't good. And Hansen's 1988 models are beginning to show that they weren't good enough in modeling reality. That's no big deal to me, but climate scientists (and hence also sceptics) still seem to think it is - otherwise it wouldn't be a topic every year at Real Climate. And not much surprise there: Schmidt works for Hansen.

And no, the argument that scenario C matches global temperatures, doesn't hold water. Because scenario C was based on drastic reductions of atmospheric greenhouse gasses between 1990 and 2000. That didn't happen. In terms of greenhouse gasses exhaust, we follow scenario B. (Hansen first calculates how much extra forcings the earth will get, and bases temperature projections on these calculations.)

So in forcings we track Hansen's scenario B, but even without reductions in GHG, the global temperature barely reaches the line of scenario C at this point. Still, as previously said, we actually can't be really sure about this as the picture doesn't include standard deviations.

Even the recent Real Climate post you link to admits that Hansen's preferred scenario, B, is running out of sync with measurements. (Actually, Hansen stated in 1987 that he was thinking it would turn out to be in between A and B.)

Therefore, the issue is climate sensitivity. Again. It's the single most important figure in climate science, and it is not settled. Despite Gavin's proclamation that the earth's sensitivity lies around 3.3 degrees C, discussion about that figure is far from over. That's the figure the Hansen camp prefers at the moment. (And Hansen's estimates have been climbing down since 1988.)

by Nomad on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 10:15:35 AM EST
[ Parent ]
It's an interesting thing to look back on predictions from climatological history... but it's barely relevant to predicting the future. To grossly over-simplify : they were trying to fit observed patterns while using too few variables; so they ended up with a CO2 sensitivity that now appears excessive.

But is it excessive, or is it being masked by other forcings? Cooling factors (particularly photochemical smog, and particles suspended in the atmosphere) are much better understood nowadays; and they are short-term phenomena. When China and India clean up their industry (and they will, and sooner than we expect), the cooling effect will greatly diminish; the particles will precipitate out of the atmosphere, but the CO2 will still be there. And the net CO2 forcing will make the temperature trend much steeper.

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II

by eurogreen on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 02:38:16 AM EST
[ Parent ]
If it isn't relevant, it begs the question why so many people, professionals in the field, still busy themselves with the topic.

It is relevant, exactly because professionals keep bringing it up, and more importantly,  because the issue on climate sensitivity has not decisively been settled (and also because scientists have staked part of their scientific career on it). Hansen's work in the late eighties is therefore essential for "proofing" ideas on climate sensitivity - it's an important test case for our ability in predicting the future.

As noted previously, Hansen considers his 1988 estimates of climate sensitivity now too large, and now puts the number for sensitivity lower. Whether he's wrong on that number now being too low, or whether it is still too high, the earth will find out as long as we don't switch to a society that is carbon neutral. In, say, 2028 it is likely we will be able to say something useful whether his 3.3 degrees estimate comes closer to describing reality.

The political problem of course is our political strategies for adaptation should be based on that sensitivity number.

by Nomad on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 10:32:18 AM EST
[ Parent ]
The political problem of course is our political strategies for adaptation should be based on that sensitivity number.

But in the case of severe negative consequences and some uncertainty about the number, should we not proceed on the basis of a somewhat worse case number? Else we are taking the position: "We can't know for sure until it is too late, so we shouldn't do anything because we might be doing the wrong thing."

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 12:17:32 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I try to be philosophically about it. Doing nothing is an ultimate position - though it is not a position I personally take. However, also doing something is politically and economically motivated, and doing something comes in gradations of how much we should do.

I was talking about adaptation in my previous post. Doing something also includes mitigation - adaptation is not the same. Even when we skip adaptation altogether, we can always do mitigation - although we're mostly choosing not to. Yet: even for mitigation the question ultimately spirals into a debate on how much mitigation over what period of time is wise. And also that is tied to climate sensitivity.

by Nomad on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 02:56:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
to one magical number : CO2 sensitivity.

We know it's not that simple. Allowing the discussion to be framed around it : "Hansen's CO2 sensitivity from 1988 is wrong, so the world is not warming all that fast" is a huge mistake.

CO2 is the biggest forcing, but a number of others, both positive and negative, are of the same order of magnitude. As a first approximation, the other forcings more or less cancel each other out, leaving a net forcing roughly equivalent to that of CO2. This does NOT mean that we can disregard other forcings!

In particular, the photochemical and particulate coolings are tied to levels of dirty industrial activity, and have varied a great deal in the past few decades. In my modest opinion, their decline in the 80s and 90s (cleanup of OECD heavy industry, decline of ex-Soviet bloc industry) steepened the global warming curve over that period; this decline has since been swamped by the dirty industry of China, India, et al, which is currently flattening the curve.

If one can't abstract that sort of influence (and especially if one declines to try), I find the idea of deriving a CO2 sensitivity from observed temperatures to be downright silly.

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II

by eurogreen on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 12:41:54 PM EST
[ Parent ]
We know that our way of living introduces increased green house forcings to our planetary system. Uncertain is: "How much will that warming be?" And this is an essential question for policy-makers (who don't like uncertainties), and it is directly tied to this one number, whether we like it or not.

Models and measurements are the only two methodologies climate scientists have got for understanding the earth's sensitivity. And it is so focused on CO2 since other forcings are converted to CO2 equivalents. There is nothing dangerous to this choice, it is one of practicality - for as far I understand the matter. Understanding the sensitivity for CO2, should enable correlation to other forcings and reach a total sensitivity for the earth. It is true that the role of particulates, soot, clouds may play a significant influence, and they too remain relatively large unknowns. Perhaps a correlation to atmospheric temperatures may turn out to be a foolish exercise altogether, and are we better off with oceanic warming. I can't say. This is why this topic is such a battleground.

Even when sensitivity calculations are fraught with uncertainties, this does not reduce the importance of understanding CO2 sensitivity - because it largely determines the severity and rate of anthropogenic climate change, and hence its understanding underpins political solutions in response to a warming planet.

On the focus on CO2, we are in agreement. I've long argued at ET that CO2 as the main greenhouse bogeyman is a too narrowed and too limited approach of the issue at stake. As there are plenty articles in the science literature mapping out other important forcings and influences, this implies that our approach to anthropogenic climate change should also be multifaceted, and not strictly limited to the mitigation of greenhouse gases.

A positive corollary of this is that our world's fate is not decided purely by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. Neither should it trivialize the role it does play.

by Nomad on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 05:33:45 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I find the Lyman et al (2010) paper eurogreen cited and the included graph shown below to be particularly concerning. If this is a reasonable sample of the top 700 meters of the ocean it would seem something is likely happening. After all, the oceans are the biggest source of thermal inertia in the entire weather system and more ocean heat leads to greater energy in the atmospheric system. Is there any basis for making an argument that this sort of change is cyclical over a few decades or less?

And what about the rate of loss of Arctic sea ice:

From the discussion at the first link:

In this case, the match is not very good, and possibly getting worse, but unfortunately it appears that the models are not sensitive enough.


"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 05:51:48 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Gavin's proclamation that the earth's sensitivity lies around 3.3 degrees C, discussion about that figure is far from over.

Err, no ... what he actually wrote was (reply to comment #1 at link to RealClimate):

We can even go one step further - what climate sensitivity would have given a perfect forecast given the actual (as opposed to projected) forcings? The answer is 3.3 deg C for a doubling of CO2.

So the 3.3 deg C is a retrospective determination of the value that would have (does) give the best agreement between the 1988 model and the current observations. As such, discussion about that precise figure is over. It is a cold, hard mathematical fact (unless he made an error in running the calculation). Even future measurements do not change this value, because it is specifically an evaluation of an old model against the data available as of early 2011.

A more appropriate comment regarding current opinion on the value for climate sensitivity is in the body of the post:

... and the old GISS model had a climate sensitivity that was a little higher (4.2ºC for a doubling of CO2) than the best estimate (~3ºC).

"best estimate" and "~" acknowledge uncertainty and do not indicate a belief that discussion is over.

by det on Tue Feb 8th, 2011 at 03:42:16 AM EST
[ Parent ]
What is visible in the graphs are trendlines, which are converted into CO2 sensitivity by a calculation that is not motivated.

The big hangup about climate sensitivity has never been much about the  sensitivity of purely CO2 - which is something that can be calculated and measured in lab conditions (it's about 1 degree for doubled CO2). The issue always has been about the effects of feedbacks, positive and negative, to increasing atmospheric CO2, in addition to the higher forcing of increased CO2.

Hansen, and Schmidt, assign certain weights to certain forcings based on certain estimates and certain model runs to explain the observed trendline, thereby finding a certain sensitivity.

There's mathematics involved, but it is far from being all hard.

by Nomad on Tue Feb 8th, 2011 at 01:53:28 PM EST
[ Parent ]
RealClimate posted an update on that original model-data comparison: 2010 updates to model-data comparisons
by det on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 07:10:05 AM EST
[ Parent ]
If the Greenland ice core data is applicable the transition will take 10 - 20 years.  That's 10-20 years from the start of the transition, not 10-20 years from 2011.

It's impossible to accurately pin-point a starting date of a transition in a Complex System until after the transition is completed.  The abnormal, to expectation, weather and weather patterns and patternings since 2007/2008 suggests, to me, we're already 2 or 3 years into it.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre

by ATinNM on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 01:31:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]
While we do not know with any precision what the ambient average temperature of the whole earth is in any year there have been many markers emerge. Some are: the average extent of Arctic ocean ice at the end of the Arctic summer; the acceleration of the melt rate of tropical glaciers; the melt rates of continental glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica; the southward migration of the permafrost line in Alaska, Canada and Siberia; the reduction of tropical rain-forests and the acidification of the oceans. Some of these factors are associated with the storage or release of carbon in the earth's surface, all moving in the direction of warming.

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 04:20:30 PM EST
[ Parent ]
How does the rainforest sequester carbon?  Once the trees have reached their climax biome there is no net storage of carbon?
by njh on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 04:57:11 PM EST
Correct, a mature rain forest stores carbon in a living system but adds or detracts little from the athmosphere. If destroyed, the carbon stored is released.

A dusty memory of an old figure says that about 25% of the carbon attition to the athmosphere is (was) the result of decreasing rainforest.

Sweden's finest (and perhaps only) collaborative, leftist e-newspaper Synapze.se

by A swedish kind of death on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 05:52:29 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Carbon sequestration of forests can be increased by processes that bury dead wood, though this is difficult on any scale.

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 03:18:27 PM EST
[ Parent ]
When a tree is growing, carbon gets locked away, ergo, growing trees are net sinks. BUT there have been some pointers that growing trees also emit methane gas - which is an even stronger greenhouse gas. I don't know what the net effect is of these two processes.

After trees reach their optimum, while there is no net storage, trees remain a temporary reservoir for carbon for as long as they live. After death of a tree, the carbon is returned to the biosphere, and some of it to the atmosphere. As skod points out, burning tropical forests gets a lot more carbon in the atmosphere. And that's why increasing droughts in the tropics are also bad news.

However, human bodies are the same like trees - as long as we live, we are a temporary reservoir effectively keeping carbon out of the atmosphere.

Hence my proposal: a solution for reducing the greenhouse effect is to have more people on the planet! :)

by Nomad on Sat Feb 5th, 2011 at 08:48:30 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Hence my proposal: a solution for reducing the greenhouse effect is to have more people on the planet! :)

More cows might be quicker and more efficient! :-)  :-)

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."

by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Sun Feb 6th, 2011 at 03:20:34 PM EST
[ Parent ]
and extending dairy farming will generally be a major net negative in GHG terms (cf New Zealand over the last decade : the rise in dairy prices has increased dairy acreage hugely, and it's an environmental catastrophe)

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II
by eurogreen on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 02:42:39 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Both proposals were of the "black humor" sort.

"It is not necessary to have hope in order to persevere."
by ARGeezer (ARGeezer a in a circle eurotrib daught com) on Mon Feb 7th, 2011 at 12:19:10 PM EST
[ Parent ]
A better approach would be to seek the collapse of agriculture, in which case land recently adopted for crops would return to their original wooded nature. This worked in New England, and could work in Europe, Asia, and South America as well.

Minor problem of food solved by Soylent Green.

by asdf on Sun Feb 13th, 2011 at 03:45:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]


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