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In April 1805, the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty to remove the French from Holland and Switzerland. Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy. The Austrians began the war by invading Bavaria with an army of about 70,000 under Karl Mack von Lieberich, and the French army marched out from Boulogne in late July, 1805 to confront them. At Ulm (September 25 - October 20) Napoleon managed to surround Mack's army by a brilliant envelopment, forcing its surrender without significant losses. With the main Austrian army north of the Alps defeated (another army under Archduke Charles maneuvered inconclusively against André Masséna's French army in Italy), Napoleon occupied Vienna. Far from his supply lines, he was faced with a superior Austro-Russian army under the command of Mikhail Kutuzov, with the Emperor Alexander of Russia personally present. On December 2 Napoleon crushed the joint Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz in Moravia (this is usually considered his greatest victory). He inflicted a total of 25,000 casualties on a numerically superior enemy army while sustaining fewer than 7,000 in his own force. After Austerlitz, Austria signed the Treaty of Pressburg, leaving the coalition. This required the Austrians to give up Venetia to the French dominated Kingdom of Italy and Tyrol to Bavaria.
In April 1805, the United Kingdom and Russia signed a treaty to remove the French from Holland and Switzerland. Austria joined the alliance after the annexation of Genoa and the proclamation of Napoleon as King of Italy...
So, who started it? :-)
Now, of course, there is this little detail of France bringing Liberty, Fraternity, Equality and the metric system to the neighbours in the previous years...
...and the French official language and cultural supremacism, setting off the virus of nationalism (in form of the reaction of the subjugated people). Terry Gilliam's recent Grimm had an ironic allusion to this, making use of the very real connection between the Grimm brothers' work and the French expansion under Napoleon.
An interesting what-if scenario would be to imagine if revolutionary France would have refrained from expansion and reverted to supporting foreign revolutionaries instead.
(It is a less-well-known fact that before 1917/8/9 and 1848, there have been two other instances of revolution spreading across Europe - the first in the wake of the French Revolution. If some of you have ever travelled to Budapest by train and arrived at Déli pu. (South Station), the park between it and the walled oldtown is called Vérmező=bloody field, because that's where the Hungarian Jacobins - exposed by the Habsburg secret service - were mass-executed.)
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
Why did I say commemorating battles sucked?
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