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Which they achieved to such an extent that today, most remaining prominent 1956 veterans still appearing in public are from the Revolution's right-wing fringe, or people who fought in the final hopeless battles with Kalashnikovs against tanks (shades of Iraq here) as teenagers and became far-right in their old age.

There are strong parallels to this course of events in both the 1968 Velvet Revolution in the Czech Republic, and the 1980 events in Poland.

I don't see the parallel to Poland in 1980. Neither in the disparate treatment of working class vs. intelligentsia oppositionists - both were placed in internment camps en masse ( the top several thousand) or fired and blacklisted (the next ones down the line) following the imposition of martial law in December 1981. THe ex opposition has also been very prominent in all spheres of politics and civil society, with the (obvious) exception of those dominated by the ex-Communists. The top two papers are dominated by ex-opposition figures, every non post-communist government has been as well, including the current one.

The 1980 movement had the advantage of a prepared cadre of leaders. The veterans of both the 1968 student/intelligentsia revolt and the workers' revolts of 1970 and 1976 began working closely together after 1976, formulating a program of the creation of an autonomous civil society, a program which was then implemented in 1980.

PS. You mention that the Hungarian revolt was partially sparked by the workers' revolt in Poznan in June. I did not know that. You might be interested to know that in November 1956 Poland was at the highpoint of a brief wave of freedom. Blood drives for the Hungarian revolutionaries were publicly organized. The provincial city Party paper that I went through had articles describing what was going on as revolutionaries vs. counter revolutionaries - with the Red Army in the latter role.

by MarekNYC on Fri Feb 17th, 2006 at 07:27:11 PM EST
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