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Also, some pitchers can throw different pitches from the same arm angle and release point. Or they can vary the arm angle.
I forgot to mention the change-up, which is a ball thrown from the fastball position but isn't fast. In fact, it's 20-40 kmh slower. has been known to upset timing.
Also, fastballs can appear to rise, or hop. they can also tail away. they can also hit you. hard.
Heavy fastballs can sink. There is no evidence that fastballs can violate the laws of physics by increasing speed, but those that do in the batter's eyes, are called "exploding" fastballs.
And for those readers not yet glazed over, don't forget that every swing is not at all the same, as the batter's hands are changing the swing to meet the changing point of impact at some appropriate moment. Pitchers like to get "under" a batter's hands.
Plus the pitcher is sending brain voodoo to the batter up to the release point and beyond, which is hard to study empirically. While the batter is telling the pitcher he's got him, "Bring it, Meat."
Plus the swing and appropriate batted ball trajectory has to impress The Baseball Annie sitting in the 7th row of section 132.
It's all so damn complicated.
"Life shrinks or expands in proportion to one's courage." - Ana´s Nin
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