Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.
Display:
25,353 MW producing 25,409 GWh, that's indeed a capacity factor of 11.4%...

By the way, is the special-regime "non-renewable thermal" in the tables cogeneration?

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.

by DoDo on Fri Mar 28th, 2014 at 07:00:08 PM EST
[ Parent ]
I'd have to double check, but I do believe that Combined Cycle gets a feed in tariff.  Spain has history of bubbles and busts in electricity production based on massive price increases.  

At the start of the 20th century, the country faced a serious problem in that domestic coal was expensive, and of low quality.  With high tariff walls, that meant that electricity was costly.  So as the start of the 20th century, there was massive investment in hydroelectric.  This basically covered demand until the 1960s, when the economic miracle took hold.

At that time, Spain turned to petroleum fired plants to cover new demand. At the time petroleum was a cheap alternative to coal. Understandably, they got shellacked come the oil crisis. There had been a a number of nuclear facilities planned at the start of the 1980s, but there was local opposition.  ETA got the idea that this was an issue that they could latch on to.  And....  they killed some of the workers at the planned Lemoniz plant. The government abandoned the expansion shortly thereafter.  At this time, there was a movement towards combined cycle gas plants during the  80s and 90s.  Again, gas was a cheap alternative.  That began to come to an end.  Finally, Spain moved to develop windpower in the late 1990s. The drive to build up renewables has a lot to do with the relative energy poverty of the Iberian Peninsula.  

And I'll give my consent to any government that does not deny a man a living wage-Billy Bragg

by ManfromMiddletown (manfrommiddletown at lycos dot com) on Fri Mar 28th, 2014 at 08:58:03 PM EST
[ Parent ]
...and after all that, austerity came and Rahoy killed the renewables boom.

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
by DoDo on Sat Mar 29th, 2014 at 05:29:51 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Spanish coal mining ceased to be profitable in the 1960s. Apart from the low quality of the coal, the problem was the low capital investment (the emphasis on labour over machinery). The coal mining oligarchs were bailed out and Spain has been subsidizing its coal for 50 years. This became a problem when the European Coal and Steel Community treaty lapsed in 2002, making coal subsidies illegal under EU law.

Investment in hydroelectric continued into the 1960s because dams are big civil engineering projects which the Spanish oligarchy likes. Franco liked to have himself filmed for propaganda inaugurating dams. His speeches about "pertinacious drought" became a running joke.

Spain built some nuclear around 1970 but all the nuclear plants now in operation were built in the 1980s. It now has seven 1Gw complexes due to be phased out in the 2020s to 2030s. There is a nuclear moratorium since 1984 meaning no new plants.

A number of combined-cycle gas plants were completed after 2000, with extremely optimistic projections on future demand growth. The Spanish government liberalised the electricity market and instituted a baroque pricing system which includes massive subsidies to producers, which have become larger and larger as demand has lagged projections and combined-cycle plants have become money losers.

The need to protect the electric utility oligarchy and rescue them for their overinvestment in gas plants is behind Rajoy's killing of renewable energy in Spain.

A society committed to the notion that government is always bad will have bad government. And it doesn't have to be that way. — Paul Krugman

by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Sun Mar 30th, 2014 at 06:01:42 AM EST
[ Parent ]
All of the capacity factors for the peninsular system (I'm being lazy and used end-of-the-year capacity figures because there were only minimal changes; except for solar thermoelectric, where I used the end-of-year figure minus half of the annual increase):
  • large hydro: 22.0%
  • nuclear: 81.8%
  • coal: 40.8%
  • combined cycle gas: 11.4%
  • small hydro: 39.4%
  • wind: 27.1%
  • solar photovoltaic: 20.5%
  • solar thermoelectric: ~24.3%
  • biomass: 58.4%
  • "non-renewable thermal" (apparent cogeneration): 51.3%

Lots of interesting figures:
  • Even with the big increase vs. last year, water scarcity seems to weigh on large hydro.
  • Of the thermal plants, it seems biomass is the one where baseload provision is the most significant alongside scheduled variable load (which usually requires load factors around 40%).
  • Both wind (which is all on-shore) and PV have impressive capacity factors. The latter is twice that in Germany, and only a fifth (5 percentage points) short of what Desertec expected in Africa.
  • Solar thermal's capacity factor is not much above that of PV although as far as I know, installations are more concentrated on the best spots in southern Spain.


*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.
by DoDo on Sat Mar 29th, 2014 at 05:55:58 AM EST
[ Parent ]
According to the report, cogeneration does not include "non-renewable thermal" nor fuel-gas.

This page describes the "special regime" as

Las instalaciones de producción de energía eléctrica en régimen especial deberán tener potencia instalada igual o inferior a 50 MW y estar en alguno de estos grupos:

a) Instalaciones que utilicen cogeneración u otras formas de producción de energía eléctrica asociadas a la electricidad, con un rendimiento energético elevado.

b) Instalaciones que utilicen energías renovables no consumibles, biomasa, biocombustibles, etc.

c) Instalaciones que utilicen residuos urbanos u otros residuos.

d) Instalaciones de tratamiento y reducción de residuos agrícolas, ganaderos y servicios.

Electical power production facilities in the special regime must have a nominal power no greater than 50 MW and be in one of the following groups:

a) Facilities using cogeneration or other forms of production of high-yield electrical power.

b) Facilities using nonconsumable [?] renewable energies such as biomass, biofuels, etc.

c) Facilities using urban or other waste.

d) Facilities for the treatment and reduction of waste from agriculture, anumal husbandry or services.



A society committed to the notion that government is always bad will have bad government. And it doesn't have to be that way. — Paul Krugman
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Sun Mar 30th, 2014 at 06:13:18 AM EST
[ Parent ]
"energías renovables no consumibles"

At a guess, this would be geothermal?

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II

by eurogreen on Mon Mar 31st, 2014 at 11:10:22 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I'm guessing small (less than 50MW) solar thermal might fall in this category, too?

A society committed to the notion that government is always bad will have bad government. And it doesn't have to be that way. — Paul Krugman
by Migeru (migeru at eurotrib dot com) on Mon Mar 31st, 2014 at 12:24:43 PM EST
[ Parent ]
cogeneration does not include "non-renewable thermal" nor fuel-gas

The "non-renewable thermal" category in the table is a sub-category of "Special regime", and I was wondering whether it was identical to cogeneration. From the 2007 law in via your link, it's not identical because facilities using waste energy are included, too ("Instalaciones que incluyan una central que utilice energías residuales procedentes de cualquier instalación, máquina o proceso industrial cuya finalidad no sea la producción de energía eléctrica y/o mecánica").

b) Facilities using nonconsumable [?] renewable energies such as biomass, biofuels, etc.

I think it's an enumeration rather than "such as". Indeed checking the 2007 law, "nonconsumable" covers wind, solar, geothermal and small hydro.

*Lunatic*, n.
One whose delusions are out of fashion.

by DoDo on Wed Apr 2nd, 2014 at 06:19:05 AM EST
[ Parent ]

Display:

Occasional Series