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Democracy is just the cover story, the more important question is what kind of oligarchy are we? Critique is impossible without language and typography, this essay provides it

Guardian - Ganesh Sitaraman - How the oligarchy wins: lessons from ancient Greece

Winters argues that there are four kinds of oligarchies, each of which pursues wealth defense through different institutions. These oligarchies are categorized based on whether the oligarchs rule is personal or collective, and whether the oligarchs use coercion.

Warring oligarchies, like warlords, are personal and armed. Ruling oligarchies like the mafia are collective and armed. In the category of unarmed oligarchies, sultanistic oligarchies (like Suharto's Indonesia) are governed through personal connections. In civil oligarchies, governance is collective and enforced through laws, rather than by arms.

With this typology behind him, Winters declares that America is already a civil oligarchy. To use the language of recent political campaigns, our oligarchs try to rig the system to defend their wealth. They focus on lowering taxes and on reducing regulations that protect workers and citizens from corporate wrongdoing.



keep to the Fen Causeway
by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Sun Oct 15th, 2017 at 10:46:14 AM EST

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