Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.
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by Bjinse on Mon Aug 13th, 2018 at 10:56:24 PM EST
Ryanair - Irish Air Line Pilots' Association (Fórsa) D2 arbitration
Three days have been set aside by Mr Mulvey and both sides have been asked to refrain from public comment while the process is under way.

archived
solidarity

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 03:07:19 PM EST
[ Parent ]
German union to start pay talks for Ryanair cabin crew on Wednesday
< pick teeth, suck vigorously >

If only he could clone himself. I wonder idly how Mr O'Rourke resolved that first strike by cabin crew? The press has not reported on terms since.

archived
Ryanair Cabin Crews in 4 European Countries Go On Strike + IE pilots 25 July
"The airline responded Thursday by warning some 100 pilots and 200 cabin crew members that they could lose their jobs as it cuts its Dublin-based aircraft fleet from 30 to 24."

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 08:27:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]
D3 - CLOSING

Independent | 'Painstaking' peace talks at Ryanair enter last day

[LAST UPDATE] August 15 2018 2:30 AM
[...]
If the latest talks collapse, the chances of a resolution will be much dimmer as Ryanair is not believed to be in favour of State mediation bodies getting involved.
Times | Ryanair pilot talks continue into the night
[LAST UPDATE] about 6 hours ago
[BACKGROUND]
RTE | Talks between Ryanair and pilots' union continue
[LAST] Updated / Wednesday, 15 Aug 2018 18:57
[...]
Yesterday's talks ended at 11.40pm and resumed at 11.30am today.
[...]
The union negotiating team is made up of representatives of Ryanair pilots who are members of the Irish Airline Pilots' Association (IALPA) and Fórsa officials, assisted by ICTU General Secretary Patricia King.]
Lemmesee: base-cut, two-tier compensation structure? I bet they fell for it.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Thu Aug 16th, 2018 at 01:57:34 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Flightright taking Ryanair to court over compensation for passengers affected by the airline's strikes
EU rules [!!] state that passengers can claim monetary compensation of up to 400 euros for flights within the region for cancelled or delayed flights, unless the reason is extraordinary circumstances, such as bad weather.
wut [1], [2], [3]
Strikes have generally fallen under extraordinary circumstances [?] although a ruling by the European Court of Justice in April said that a wildcat strike by staff at German airline TUIfly following a restructuring could not be classed as extraordinary circumstances.
A 'wildcat strike' by flight staff following the surprise announcement of a restructuring does not constitute an 'extraordinary circumstance' releasing the air line from its obligation to pay compensation in the event of cancellation or long delay of flight ... The Court further observes that the fact that the social movement in question should be classified, under the applicable German social legislation, as a 'wildcat strike' because it was not formally initiated by a trade union is irrelevant
Flightright takes Ryanair to court over compensation for passengers affected by recent pilot strikes
Flightright, like other passenger rights groups, helps passengers to claim compensation from airlines under EU261 rules in exchange for a 25 to 30% share of the compensation received.
perverting "class action" advocacy and "market power"
Ryanair, therefore, urges passengers to file claims with them directly. "Ryanair deals with each claim on a case-by-case basis [!] and requires our customers to submit flight disruption claims directly to Ryanair. We do this solely to ensure that all Ryanair customers will receive 100pc [!]of their EU261 compensation."

But what if Ryanair says beforehand that it will not pay compensation?

In Belgium, the consumer union [!!] Test Achats/Aankoop has introduced a claim against Ryanair on behalf of 50 passengers among its members affected by the cabin crew and pilot strikes, with more dossiers to follow.

archived act of god
Ireland, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Sweden


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Thu Aug 16th, 2018 at 03:06:44 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I have only flown with ryanair occasionally and would take considerable effort to avoid them.

keep to the Fen Causeway
by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Thu Aug 16th, 2018 at 03:45:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Independent UPDATE (none)

Examiner UPDATE (none)

Belfast Telegraph, digression
Will this climate of share buybacks pay future dividends for companies?
"CRH, Paddy Power Betfair and Ryanair are spending billions on their own shares. ..."

RTE UPDATE
Fourth day of Ryanair talks to get under way in coming days
"adjourned", [BACKGROUND]

Times UPDATE
Ryanair pilot talks to continue later this week

Talks ended at 12.30am on Thursday morning after a 12 hour session [BACKGROUND] IALPA-Forsa said in a statement that the negotiations were expected to resume later this week.
[BACKGROUND]
Little known fact: While the press plays possum, Mr O'Rourke clones himself. MWAHAHAHAhaha.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Thu Aug 16th, 2018 at 04:41:28 PM EST
[ Parent ]
D4 - MOSTLY DEAD

Independen, Examiner, Belfast Telegraph UPDATE (none)

Times | Hopes mount that Ryanair and Irish pilots can broker deal

Airline and pilots meeting for a fourth day under mediator Kieran Mulvey
[BACKGROUND]
An IALPA-Forsa spokesman said that a "fair bit had been done" this week and added that Mr Mulvey was unlikely to have scheduled a fourth day if he did not believe the sides could make further progress.
[BACKGROUND]


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Fri Aug 17th, 2018 at 03:06:53 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Pilot and cabin crew trade unions gather in Rome first week of September
"Portuguese newspaper Dinheiro Vivo picked up this information from Portuguese trade union SNPVAC. A list of demands will be drafted during this big meeting. "If Ryanair doesn't comply with these demands, the airline may face the biggest strike in its history," trade unions warned."
In an open letter, unions from Belgium, Italy, Portugal and Spain
Dear Ryanair Shareholders,
[....]
After months of frustrating talks, innocuous meetings and even strike actions in some countries, we fail to see a 'sincere and genuine' union integration process and the willing to engage in a negotiation with the workers' legitimate representatives in each country, instead of some hand-picked Unions [US-Eng., company union] , by convenience of the Ryanair management.

Quite the opposite, in fact.
[...]
What happened was a polarization of the parties' positions due to a continuous refusal from Ryanair representatives to follow the local regulations and refusal to respect the Unions role in their own countries.

Ryanair management continues to use bullying as a management tool, that punishes people for being sick, that sends intimidating letters to the people that exercised their right to strike, threatening to cut jobs in the countries affected and insisting on perpetuating a business model that we all consider to be obsolete.
[...]
We strongly believe that Ryanair is capable of adapting its business to the commercial and social reality of today's Europe, based on dignity, freedom, democracy, equality and the rule of law.

What we don't believe is that current management has the necessary trust from the employees nor the skill set [!] to perform these changes.
[...]
Yours sincerely,

SNPVACS - CNE - sitcplaSITCPLA - USO - UILTRASPORTI - FILT-CGIL - LBC-NVK

o, SSSSSsssssssnap

from the back bench

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Fri Aug 17th, 2018 at 03:31:51 PM EST
[ Parent ]
m'k. Inside baseball in the trade puts seems to confirm existing terms and conditions of employment --none nice-- and setting inauguration for collective bargaining in the company union. It is not ceremonial. De plane Boss' fantasy is to spread IE right-to-work efficiency across the EU.

German Cabin Crew Union Starts Talks with Ryanair Today, Wed, 15 Aug

[W]e weren't expecting either side to show their hand or give the world a running commentary.

And that's why a new statement from Ver.di is so interesting.  The union is making three key demands:

  • A "substantial" increase in pay
  • Recognising German* employment law
  • Equal conditions for directly [!] employed and agency [ie. "temp", "zero-contract"!] cabin crew

"The income must finally become viable and predictable. Due to seasonal fluctuations and a lack of flight hours guarantee some full-time employees receive only around € 1,000 gross per month. That is completely unacceptable," explains the union's Christine Behle.
[...]
At present, Ryanair forces all its cabin crew to sign Irish employment contracts - a policy that they say is perfectly legal, reasonable and not one they have any plans to change.
Low bar, colossal dick
Seven cabin crew unions write to Ryanair shareholders demanding an end to unrest, 17 Aug
A spokesperson for Ryanair said: "We don't comment on false claims made by smaller unions, many of whom are not recognised by Ryanair. Letters to shareholders (such as this) are a failed attempt to generate fake news and will be ignored by both Ryanair and our shareholders."
This is the language of psychopathy.

* and Belgian, Swedish, Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, Polish

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Sat Aug 18th, 2018 at 01:51:06 AM EST
[ Parent ]
D4 - DEAD
Talks between Ryanair and pilots' union adjourned

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Sat Aug 18th, 2018 at 04:10:08 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Couldn't happen to a more deserving company; bunch of shits from the top down

keep to the Fen Causeway
by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Mon Aug 20th, 2018 at 05:52:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
EU-Swiss treaty `dead as doornail' as labour boycotts talks
Switzerland's plan [?] to forge a new treaty cementing ties with the European Union has hit the rocks after the normally pro-Europe centre left joined the far right [?!] in resisting a deal that Swiss labour unions say might undermine wages and working conditions.
Yes, it appears the concept "labor theory of value" is not well understood. Indeed even Mr Graeber's "works in this broadly conceived 'interpretive' tradition" have proved neither instructive or practical.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 03:35:18 PM EST
[ Parent ]
KLM pilots threaten strike over pay, work pressure:, "holiday makers"
" 'If KLM does not agree with our proposal, then we will begin with work stoppages,' the VNV said."

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 05:13:15 PM EST
[ Parent ]
who knew that the standard model of working people harder for less pay could reach a point where the people can take no more?

keep to the Fen Causeway
by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 06:47:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Russia backs non-dollar trade with Turkey, no promise of help amid lira crisis
"I don't think the Russians will bankroll Turkey at this stage, as I think they have their own issues with the United States with sanctions and will want to maintain their own FX buffers," [Timothy Ash, senior strategist at BlueBay Asset Management] said.

NON-DOLLAR TRADE

Turkey has a track record of using national currencies in international trade. Last October, the Turkish and Iranian central banks formally agreed to trade in local currencies after using the euro for settlements in the past.

Using national currency in mutual trade has its drawbacks, however. If the currency of one of the parties to a trade is in meltdown [TECHNICAL NOTE], that exposes the other party to heightened risks that would not usually exist if the deal was settled in dollars.

possibly "unitization"

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 06:20:37 PM EST
[ Parent ]
a lot of commentary that Turkey's problem here is largely Erdogan's ego. He has implemented certain economic policies which are destroying the economy, but which are very popular with his base.

Also a lot of quieter commentary that, there is no chance of regional contagion or blowback on european or US economies, so let 'em stew in it.

keep to the Fen Causeway

by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 06:51:58 PM EST
[ Parent ]
So far as I can tell, all the profit-taking over the past 72 hours has been in the bond market. I know Turkey gov interest rates spiked. I don't know size and value of Turkey gov external debt. So maybe I'll look it up, but iirc, it wasn't anywhere near PIIGS ratio in 2012.

My intuition is, this is a flash in the MMT pan. The real pain for NATO comes later.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 07:26:55 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Phoneposting but I have the vague memory from soaking in my Twitter feed that about a third of Turkish government debt is in foreign currency. A quick Google turns up nothing.
by generic on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 07:50:40 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Well, it certainly seems like the coup did have NATO involvement. I doubt Trump just thought of picking a fight with Erdogan on his own. Might be looking at a Trump whisperer.
by generic on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 08:24:45 PM EST
[ Parent ]

U.S. envoy for religious freedom Sam Brownback talks to media outside the Aliaga Prison

Andrew Brunson, the face that launched 1,000 wtfs.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 08:37:38 PM EST
[ Parent ]
In my view Trump is seeking political obedience from Erdogan to release preacher.

Furthermore, it appears the Pentagon and IC has a squeeze on the president. Erratic behavior on foreign policy statements within 24 hours. Doesn't help that Turkey is in the coalition with Syria, Russia and Iran.

In Iraq the new government will be formed by "outcast" Muqtada al-Sadr.

by Oui on Tue Aug 14th, 2018 at 09:12:11 PM EST
[ Parent ]
... an understatement, flanking the Israel beach head in the "Greater Middle East" , Turkey is a 'target of economic war', Erdogan says.

Retired Admiral James Stavridis, an ex-NATO supreme allied commander, urged Washington and Ankara to do all they can to improve relations.
"To lose Turkey would be a geopolitical mistake of epic proportions," he told MSNBC on Monday.
To which I add, a "new world order" will arise of his making, as Mr Trump is also turning the proverbial screws on EU gov with all the vim and vigor of Vic Nuland. He may be aroused now, but "no man, however strong, can ever accomplish anything good or bad, without the help of others." This is his blind spot.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 01:45:32 AM EST
[ Parent ]
alrighty then.

I can see global economic incontinence this time next year. The proximate perversity will not be tariff competition but, likely, demand destruction across commodity markets. I don't think either IMF or WTO can contain status quo much longer and offer scarce incentive to those at the bottom of the supply chain who've nothing left to lose. Alliances are regrouping.

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 03:22:43 AM EST
[ Parent ]
To which I add, a "new world order" will arise of his making, as Mr Trump is also turning the proverbial screws on EU gov with all the vim and vigor of Vic Nuland.

The Intercept - Donald Trump and the Coming Fall of American Empire
A new book by the famed historian Alfred McCoy predicts that China is set to surpass the influence of the U.S. globally, both militarily and economically, by the year 2030. At that point, McCoy asserts the United States empire as we know it will be no more. He sees the Trump presidency as one of the clearest byproducts of the erosion of U.S. global dominance, but not its root cause. At the same time, he also believes Trump may accelerate the empire's decline.
h/t Helen
by Bernard on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 10:54:09 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Well, it certainly seems like the coup did have NATO involvement.
[citation needed]

I doubt Trump just thought of picking a fight with Erdogan on his own.

Andrew Brunson case: US takes narrow view in dispute with Turkey over pastor - DW

The implication of the Trump administration's rhetoric is that US pressure on Turkey could be dropped if Brunson were released. That makes the myopic focus on Brunson, whose cause has been picked up by Trump's evangelical base, problematic.

"Brunson's detention is egregious, and the United States should be making every effort to secure the release of American citizens unjustly imprisoned overseas. That said, by justifying human rights-related sanctions only on the grounds of the Turkish government's treatment of Brunson, rather than on that government's abysmal human rights record writ large, the administration has clearly placed a disproportionate emphasis on a single individual," said Rob Berschinski, the Senior Vice President for Policy at Human Rights First.

"It's hard not to infer that the administration is using the Brunson case to pander to its supporters, given Brunson's profession as an evangelical Christian pastor, and the extent to which the administration has been much less aggressive concerning other Americans detained in Turkey," added Berschinski, a former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy and Human Rights.

(my emphasis)
by Bernard on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 10:47:27 AM EST
[ Parent ]
"It's hard not to infer that the administration is using the Brunson case to pander to its supporters,

I kinda thought that was a given, all policy, domestic and foreign is about appealing to his base and their prejudices. It's bread and circuses

keep to the Fen Causeway

by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 12:54:09 PM EST
[ Parent ]


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 03:03:59 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Well, it certainly seems like the coup did have NATO involvement.

Let's examine only a US state-approved fact authority (as if historical US rules of hegemony, of which the institution of NATO hierarchy and its concerted objective, destabilization of political and economic rivals worldwide do not apply) to identify:

I. means (US manufactured armament including but not limited to aircraft sales, chain of command, military and political intelligence);
II. motive (including but not limited to methods of organizational hygiene such as "discipline" within NATO ranks); and
III. opportunity (perennial real and imagined "insubordination" of US command --passive-aggressive behavior-- by Turkey gov)

Premises
Greece and Turkey, NATO members since 1952, of which FUCKUS designated trash cans since 1952. Indeed "the coup did have NATO involvement."

Argument

  1. 2005. US *asylum to Fethullah Gülen, confirmed "leader" of an insurgent "movement" in Turkey.
    The Gülen movement has some infiltration at the least in the military that I am aware of. They of course had extreme infiltration into the police and judiciary earlier. I saw that when I was in Turkey previously, particularly in the Sledgehammer case, Hakan Fidan case, and the corruption cases in 2013. ...

  2. 2016. July 2016 Turkish military asylum incident in Greece
eight Turkish military personnel claimed asylum in Greece. ...  This was one of multiple similar incidents during the coup attempt.

3. NATO "plausible deniability" instantiated by a third-party tweet and
The United Nations Security Council [of which NATO member veto privilege] however, did not denounce the coup after disagreements over the phrasing of a statement.[70]

Conclusion
Yes, NATO members involvement in the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt is factually incontrovertible.


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 03:02:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Erdogan, Macron vow to boost economic ties: Turkish presidential source
of course, Erdogan is lying, because dictator, failed state, censorhisp, mostly-musllim

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Thu Aug 16th, 2018 at 05:04:20 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Of course, Macron is lying, because his lips are moving

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II
by eurogreen on Fri Aug 17th, 2018 at 01:40:55 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Never forget commercial paper. I almost did.
Exclusive: Development bank EBRD has stress-tested for 40 percent lira crash
One of Turkey's biggest multilateral investors, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, has passed internal stress tests for a 40 percent drop by the lira, sources told Reuters, but the currency has weakened more than that this year.
[...]
It often works alongside Turkish banks, all of which have seen their share prices and bonds hammered by the collapse of the lira in recent weeks.
Hurriyet | Turkey's external debt stock reaches $466.7 billion in first quarter
Turkey's gross external debt stock stood at $466.67 billion, more than half of its gross domestic product (GDP) - 52.9 percent - at the end of March 2018, the Treasury announced on June 29.
[RANDOM FUND INTELLIGENCE] | Debt Service Ratio: Private Non-F­­inancial Sector
[CIRCLING VULTURE PROMO | 'What happens in Turkey won't stay in Turkey': Why this debt crisis could be different

reference
Turkey | Ministry of Treasury and Finance | Debt Indicators 31 July 2018
includes EU comparative debt:GDP
EC |  Customs Union agreement


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 12:53:23 AM EST
[ Parent ]
foreign currencies reserves
gold reserves

Gaddafi Kiss of Death
Al monitor | Why are Turkey's gold reserves on the rise? April 2018

In a sign that Turkey will continue to stock up on gold, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on April 17 argued that international loans should be based on gold rather than dollars. Speaking at an economic gathering in Istanbul, he remarked, "Why do you have to make the loans in dollars? Let's base the loans on gold. We need to rid states and nations of exchange rate pressure. Throughout history, gold has never been a means of pressure." Erdogan also said that he had made the suggestion to International Monetary Fund officials at a G-20 meeting.
Bloomberg | "Authoritarian Gold Bugs" June 2018


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 02:46:33 AM EST
[ Parent ]
USD:TRY:RMB


Bloomberg rallies FX speculators, "Turkey Just a Test Case as Quantitative Tightening Era Nears"

uh huh.

That's new.

NEXT WEEK: Trump [SANCTIONS VANUATU CURRENCY MANIPULATION]

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 03:52:40 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Qatar Comes to [$15B] Rescue as Turkey Moves to Avert Financial Crisis
re: "synergies," wind down, BONUS: commercial paper notes
It total, companies have $217 billion in net foreign-exchange debt, equal to about a quarter [25% of 52%] of gross domestic product, according to central bank data. While officially the bad debt [NONPERFORMING LOAN] ratio at Turkey's banks is just 3 percent, lenders are in the process of renegotiating upwards of $20 billion of loans to try to prevent them from going into default.

Against this backdrop, the nation's banking regulator said late Tuesday that lenders can now extend maturities on or refinance loans, issue new debt to help troubled companies, and seek new collateral [BWAH!] to protect themselves. They can also demand debtors sell assets to repay loans.

familiar territory

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Wed Aug 15th, 2018 at 10:30:43 PM EST
[ Parent ]
AHA!
U.S. stocks moved lower in the last 10 minutes of the session after Trump, in an interview with Reuters, said he was "not thrilled" with Fed Chairman Jerome Powell and accused China and Europe of manipulating their respective currencies.
I tell you wut, ooo boy howdy, you gotta wake up pretty early in the morning to slip one by this guy!

archived
The EU List of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions. 5 Dec 2017

Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.

by Cat on Tue Aug 21st, 2018 at 03:25:49 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Guardian - Larry Elliot - Greece's bailout is finally at an end - but has been a failure

After eight years, Greece will on Monday be deemed strong enough to stand on its own feet. The international bailout programme that has provided Athens with emergency financial support will come to an end. Aside from the tough budget rules in place for the next decade or more, Greeks can wave goodbye to the troika - the officials from the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Union - that has in effect been running the country since 2010.

Beware the hype that trumpets this as a great success story, a tribute to solidarity and a commonsense approach that has restored economic stability and prevented Greece from being the first country to leave the euro. Nothing could be further from the truth.

Greece has been a colossal failure. It is a tale of incompetence, of dogma, of needless delay and of the interests of banks being put before the needs of people. And there will be long-term consequences. When Greece first received help in 2010, the plan was for it to have access to the financial markets within two years. It has taken two further rescue packages and six years for that to happen.



keep to the Fen Causeway
by Helen (lareinagal at yahoo dot co dot uk) on Mon Aug 20th, 2018 at 06:10:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
One World, One Crime, One Injury: Double Jeopardy In Corporate Crime Cases
In June, Societe Generale, a global financial services institution based in Paris, France, and its wholly owned subsidiary, SGA Societe Generale Acceptance, entered into an agreement to pay a combined total penalty of more than $860 million to resolve charges with criminal authorities in the United States and France, including $585 million relating to a multi-year scheme to pay bribes to officials in Libya and $275 million for violations arising from its manipulation of the London InterBank Offered Rate (LIBOR), one of the world's leading benchmark interest rates.
[...]
"It is not fair that a company that pays millions of dollars in the United States will be convicted a second time for the same facts [?] in France or in Switzerland or in Africa or in whatever jurisdiction."


Diversity is the key to economic and political evolution.
by Cat on Tue Aug 21st, 2018 at 01:40:20 AM EST
[ Parent ]

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