Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.
Display:

After the Berlin Wall: Europe's Struggle to Overcome Its Divisions | CFR - Jan. 6, 2022 |

Europe has seen deeper integration in the three-plus decades since the end of the Cold War, but has also struggled with new threats to its institutions, security, and core values.

The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 laid the groundwork for new institutions, new states, and, in some cases, new conflicts. In the more than three decades since Germany's reunification and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the European Union (EU) has taken shape but suffered growing pains along the way.

A look back at the post-communist years recalls the swift expansion of the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the mounting challenge Russia posed in response to both.

Russia Experiments With Capitalism and Democracy

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the newly constituted Russian Federation got its first democratically elected president in Boris Yeltsin, who immediately set out to implement market-oriented reforms: lifting trade barriers, giving up price controls, and withdrawing state subsidies. This form of shock therapy sparked a period of sharp inflation that decimated the savings of millions of ordinary Russians and sent poverty rates soaring.

Despite his deep unpopularity, Yeltsin won a second term as president in a 1996 election tainted by irregularities. The emerging class of oligarchs supported Yeltsin's re-election bid in exchange for a controlling stake in many of the country's biggest mineral and oil companies. In 1998, Russia defaulted on its sovereign debt [PDF] and its economy crashed. This, combined with a rise in corruption, organized crime, and income inequality, was a major setback for Russian democracy and set the stage for the 1999 emergence of Vladimir Putin. First elected president in 2000, he would go on to dominate the country's politics for decades.



'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jan 27th, 2022 at 07:50:08 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jan 27th, 2022 at 07:50:43 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Protests outside the White House in Washington against a potential US and Nato escalation with Russia in Ukraine.

Protests Lafayette Square | Washington DC | Disband NATO! No War on Russia! 

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 28th, 2022 at 05:24:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Display:

Occasional Series