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Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot : du genre humain au bois d'ébène

Slavery and the slave trade were declared crimes against humanity  by the French Parliament in May 2000 and by the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Intolerance in Durban declaration (August-September 2001). These two historical decisions are based on the materiality of the tragedy of slavery and the slave trade.

Recognition of the crime against humanity constitutes not only an ethical reparation, the foundation of all other reparations, but also the universal sanction of what the French historian Jean-Michel Deveau called, in his work La France aux temps des négriers ( Éditions France Empire), "the greatest tragedy in human history in terms of its duration and magnitude". In the universal history of slavery, the transatlantic slave trade and slavery have several singularities: centuries --, the racial specificity of their victims -- the child, the woman, the black African man --, their ideological legitimization -- the cultural denigration of Africa and of the Black --, in a word, the intellectual construction of anti-Black racism and its legal organization, the Black Code.

The major material data that justify the recognition of the crime are beginning to emerge, particularly under the impetus of the UNESCO Slave Route project: the organization, with the slave trade, of the first system of globalization in history; the demographic and human drain on the African continent (several tens of millions of men, women and children); the deep and lasting economic, social and cultural breakdown of the African continent; the total violence of a legal repressive apparatus; the criminalization of all forms of resistance, etc.

The image that is beginning to take shape and substance, the visible part of an immense iceberg of violence and exploitation, is that of a system whose material and formal structure (commercial circuits, state licenses, large companies, slave ships, forts and parking places, sea crossing conditions, the Middle Passage, working and operating conditions in mines and fields, etc.) only takes on meaning, significance and efficiency through the existence of an ideological system of intellectual and moral legitimization.

Rights of minorities and failure to address the rights of Palestinians in an apartheid state Israel, in search of its independence. In 2009 a failed review conference was held.

2009 United Nations World Conference Against Racism or Durban II

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by Oui (Oui) on Thu Nov 17th, 2022 at 03:46:39 PM EST
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