Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.
How very similar is the attitude today to expand US hegemony to inflict serious damages on the adversaries ... savages and mercenaries of evil empires. May American exceptionalism be victorious.

Official Website U.S. Government -- Indian Wars Campaigns

Miami, January 1790 - August 1795. In the late 1780's a confederacy of hostile Indians, chiefly Miamis, in the northern part of present-day Ohio and Indiana restricted settlement largely to the Ohio Valley. Three separate expeditions were required to remove this obstacle to expansion.

Late in 1790 a force of 320 Regulars and 1,000 Kentucky and Pennsylvania militiamen under Brig. Gen. Josiah Harmar moved north from Fort Washington (Cincinnati) and was badly defeated in two separate engagements on 18 and 22 October 1790 in the vicinity of present-day Fort Wayne, Indiana. Congress then commissioned Governor Arthur St. Clair of the Northwest Territory as a major general, and he collected a force of about 2,000 men consisting of two regiments of Regulars (300 men each), 800 levies, and 600 militiamen. This force advanced slowly north from Fort Washington in September 1791, building a road and forts as it progressed. On the night of 3 - 4 November 1791 some 1,000 Indians surrounded 1,400 of St. Clair's men (one Regular regiment was in the rear) near the headwaters of the Wabash. The force was routed, and St. Clair, having lost 637 killed and 263 wounded, returned to Fort Washington.

Congress reacted to these disasters by doubling the authorized strength of the Regular Army in 1792 and appointing Anthony Wayne to succeed St. Clair. Maj. Gen. Wayne joined his troops near Pittsburgh in June 1792 and reorganized his Regulars to form a "Legion" composed of four sub-legions, each a "combat team" consisting of two battalions of infantry, a battalion of rifles, a troop of dragoons, and a company of artillery. After intensive training the Legion moved to Fort Washington in the spring of 1793 where it joined a force of mounted riflemen, Kentucky levies.

Early in October 1793, after peace negotiations had failed, Wayne's troops advanced slowly along St. Clair's route toward Fort Miami, a new British post on the present site of Toledo. They built fortifications along the way and wintered at Greenville. In the spring of 1794 a detachment of 150 men under Capt. Alexander Gibson was sent to the site of St. Clair's defeat where they built Fort Recovery. At the end of June, more than 1,000 warriors assaulted this fort for ten days, but the Indians were effectively beaten and forced to retreat. Wayne moved forward in July with a force of some 3,000 men, including 1,400 levies from Kentucky, paused to build Fort Defiance at the junction of the Glaize and Maumee, and resumed pursuit of the Indians on 15 August. At Fallen Timbers, an area near Fort Miami where a tornado had uprooted trees, the Indians made a stand. On 20 August 1794 the Indians were thoroughly defeated in a two-hour fight that was characterized by Wayne's excellent tactics and the able performance of his well-trained troops. Wayne's men destroyed the Indian villages, including some within sight of the British guns of Fort Miami.

Jay's Treaty (1794) resulted in the evacuation of frontier posts by the British. By the Treaty of Greenville, 3 August 1795, the western tribes of the region ceded their lands in southern and eastern Ohio, and the way was opened for rapid settlement of the Northwest Territory.

On 15 December 1890, bureau police killed Sitting Bull, a leader in the Ghost Dance movement, while trying to arrest him. Government attention then focused on Big Foot and his band of a few hundred Ghost Dance followers. The 7th Cavalry found him on 28 December and escorted him and his people to the Army camp at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. On the morning of 29 December, an effort to disarm the band led to a shot being fired. It may have been an accidental discharge as a soldier tried to confiscate a weapon, but whatever the source, it led immediately to heavy and indiscriminate firing from soldiers and some return fire from the Lakota. In the ensuing action, many Lakota men, women and children sought to escape via ravines that cut through the area. The soldiers also employed artillery despite the presence of numerous noncombatants. The main firing lasted about an hour, though intermittent shots rang out into the afternoon. When it was over, more than two hundred Lakota (perhaps as many as three hundred), including women and children, were dead. Army casualties totaled 25 killed and 39 wounded, some of whom likely were hit by friendly fire in the confused situation. A few small skirmishes ensued in the region, but by mid-January the violence was over. The Army conducted an investigation of the incident but never determined culpability.

@BooMan there were some prolific writers ... one of them wrote under pseudonym Ghostdancer ...

Earlier writing @BooMan ...

  • Ode to Ghostdancers Way
  • Mitakuye oyasin! | by ghostdancer way | May 13, 2008 |

  • 'Sapere aude'
    by Oui (Oui) on Mon Nov 14th, 2022 at 06:34:51 PM EST

    Others have rated this comment as follows:


    Occasional Series