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Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave

The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853-1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed so much stronger. In 1861, he freed 25 million serfs, roughly one third of Russia's population. He then established local self-governments, "Westernized" the judicial system, abolished capital punishment, greatly expanded universities, etc. But the changes proved difficult. The serfs had little money to buy properties necessary for their livelihoods, and the Czar refused to establish a national legislature. Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), a small group greatly influenced by anarchists, was formed in 1879, and in 1881 it assassinated Alexander II. Members were university students; women constituted one third of the group, the first time women had ever been involved in terrorist activity. Russian terrorism persisted for 40 odd years, though individual groups rarely lasted more than 5 years.

Assassinating prominent public figures was the principal tactic, and martyrdom was then sought in court trials. Efforts were always made to seek international support, i.e., foreign bases, Diasporas, other radical groups, etc. Two kinds of terrorist groups emerged on six continents: nationalists and anarchists. Anarchists produced the "Golden Age of Assassination" (1892-1901) in which more monarchs, presidents, and prime ministers were assassinated than ever before. The Wave's high point was from 1890 to 1910. But that high point produced furious antiterrorist sentiment and no significant support from the poor, forcing many anarchists to abandon assassination and seek other methods like syndicalism for achieving their goals.

The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism by David C. Rapoport | 2017 | A thesis based on this work

Modern terror began in Russia in the 1880s and within a decade appeared in Western Europe, the Balkans, and Asia.

Historic overview ...

List of peasant revolts from 200BC till 1994AD

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 09:22:50 PM EST
< wipes tears >

excluding the prior 400 years of European sectarian wars and "jungle" gardening.

by Cat on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 02:34:52 PM EST
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(1096 and 1291) to capture teh Holy land OCCUPIED by teh muslim natives
by Cat on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 02:48:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Not peasants but valiant knights riding under the banner of the Holy Cross ...  many secrets taken into the grave or buried on Malta or a castle. Various gods must be angry in the heavens as an underdog left the battle field with the prize. We defend our home over there ... imposed Judeo-Christian values on the West and the America's.

Revenge is mine ... between now and eternity 🙏🏽 borders are not yet settled.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 03:51:50 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Are you sure about that?
by Cat on Sun Jan 8th, 2023 at 02:28:07 PM EST
[ Parent ]


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