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Only two states conduct a "runoff election" when either of two candidates for a state or federal office does not obtain a simple majority of votes counted in the first ballot, ie. ≥ 50%. The date of the runoff election is set by the state's electoral law, eg. Georgia Code Title 21. Elections § 21-2-501.

In the US "proportional representation" is informally expressed as a ratio, total population of a jurisdiction (city, county, state) divided by fixed number of legislative seats prescribed by a state's constitution. This formula prevails for federal representation, too. The principal effect of the decennial census population estimate requires states' legislators to revise electoral districts according to changes in federal apportionment produced by a multiplier value.

In the US, electoral systems are prescribed by local government to the extent allowed by a state's constitution and superceding electoral statutes. Thus, NYC can enact "ranked choice" (preference, or elimination, ballots) formula to elect officers within its jurisdiction, but election to NY state offices requires candidates' to obtain a simple plurality of votes to prevail (no runoff).

Where Ranked Choice Voting is Used as of April 2022

Political party by-laws and caucus candidate election systems are proprietary--beyond the pale of public law to the extent they to not ultimately prevent voters to  elect anyone (including "write-ins") qualified for general election, administered by a state's electoral functionaries.  

by Cat on Tue Apr 5th, 2022 at 03:04:29 AM EST
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