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The Prime Minister is named by the President, and must resign if they don't obtain a confidence vote in the Assembly. The Prime Minister conducts the government of France.
Rocard, Cresson and Bérégovoy, three Prime Ministers of Mitterand's second term, 1988-1995, could give him advice on running a government without a majority in parliament. Except Rocard died five years ago, and Bérégovoy shot himself after losing the parliamentary election to Chirac in 1993. That leaves Edith Cresson, France's first female Prime Minister, who is still around.
They negotiated on a case by case basis with the Communists or with centrist factions to get legislation passed.
They also made extensive use of article 49.3 of the Constitution, which allows the Government to declare a piece of legislation passed unless challenged by a vote of confidence. This worked because there was no alternative majority available.
However, the Constitution was amended in 2010, and it now specifies that article 49.3 can only be used on one piece of legislation per year, plus the Budget.
It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue
- Queen Elizabeth II
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