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receiving-party charges, 14 Oct satellite "dishes"
Musk's tweet came in response to a CNN report that SpaceX had warned in a letter, dated September 8 and sent to the U.S. Department of Defense, that it can no longer afford to provide its Starlink terminals [recievers], which are crucial for Ukraine's military telecommunication.
[...]
The Starlink satellite [tele]communication system has been crucial not only for Ukraine's military communication, but also for the government to maintain contact with commanders, for Zelenskyy to conduct interviews with journalists, and for civilian communications, connecting with loved ones via the encrypted satellites signal frequency.
[...]
Ukraine has received around 20,000 Starlink satellite units receivers. Musk said last week that the "operation has cost SpaceX $80 million and will exceed $100 million by the end of the year."

Musk was initially lauded for providing the Starlink terminals receivers to Ukraine, but according to the SpaceX letter, the vast majority were partially or fully funded by other parties, including the U.S. government, the U.K. and Poland. Poland is the largest single contributor and has paid for almost 9,000 terminals receivers, which cost $1,500 and $2,500 for the two models sent to Ukraine, according to the documents.

Those governments also paid for a third of the internet connectivity data transmission while SpaceX funded the rest, making up the more expensive part of the bill, according to SpaceX.

Among the documents seen by CNN is also a request from Ukrainian General Valeriy Zaluzhnyi to SpaceX for almost 8,000 more Starlink terminals receivers. SpaceX reportedly responded by recommending the request be sent to the U.S. Department of Defense....

accounts payable. har.
by Cat on Fri Oct 14th, 2022 at 01:09:42 PM EST
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MIT Tech Review | Starlink signals can be reverse-engineered to work like GPS--whether SpaceX likes it or not, 21 Oct
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 For the past two years, his team at UT Austin's Radionavigation Lab has been reverse-engineering signals sent from thousands of Starlink internet satellites in low Earth orbit to ground-based receivers. Now Humphreys says his team has cracked the problem, and he believes that regular beacon binary data signals signals from the constellation, designed to help receivers connect with the satellites, could form the basis of a useful navigation system. Crucially, this could be done without any help from SpaceX at all.
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Humphreys quickly realized that Starlink relies on a technology called orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is an efficient method of encoding digital data transmissions, originally developed at Bell Labs in the 1960s and now used in Wi-Fi[,] and 5G. "OFDM is all the rage," says Mark Psiaki, a GPS expert and aerospace professor at Virginia Tech. "It's a way to pack the most bits per second into a given bandwidth."

The UT Austin researchers did not try to break Starlink's encryption or access any user data coming down from satellites. Instead, they sought out synchronization sequences--predictable, repeating signals beamed down by the satellites in orbit to help receivers coordinate with them. Not only did Humphreys find such sequences, but "we were pleasantly surprised to find that they [had] more synchronization sequences than is strictly required," he says.
[...]

reference
What is adornment?
What is speech?
What is cave painting?
What is cunieform?
What is an alphabet
What is a telegraph?
"A telegraph is a communication system that sends information by making and breaking an electrical connection."

What is morse code?
-- --- •-• ••• • -•-• --- -•• •
What is binary code?
0100 0011 0100 0001 0101 0100

What is a modem
"The earliest devices that satisfy the definition of a modem may be the multiplexers used by news wire services in the 1920 1840s."
What is a telephone?
"the equipment necessary to convert sound to electrical signals and back"

Dretske, F., Knowledge and the Flow of Information

by Cat on Sat Oct 22nd, 2022 at 03:46:05 AM EST
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by Cat on Mon Oct 24th, 2022 at 02:41:12 PM EST
[ Parent ]
"easy-to-use satellite dishes", 4 Nov
Negotiations between SpaceX and the Defense Department continue despite Musk's claim that SpaceX withdrepw * its request, according to a senior defense official.

"Negotiations are very much underway. Everyone in our building knows we're going to pay them," the senior Pentagon official told CNN, adding that the department is eager to have commitments in writing "because we worry he'll change his mind."

meaning, MoM replacement costs inna war to defend last Ukrainian trench are approaching "unsustainable" losses.

* not my typo, unexpectedly

by Cat on Fri Nov 4th, 2022 at 09:23:34 PM EST
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