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The Frisian people were less willing to be converted, they killed an early missionary coming from England St. Boniface by Dokkum (754). In my town of birth, St. Jeroen was martyred by roaming Vikings in 9th century.

The Dutch-Spanish 80 Years War (1568-1648) never ended as it was perpetuated by a split in society with Catholics being subservient to Dutch Reformed, the State religion of the House of Orange.  Not quite as extreme as the Queen in England being the Head of the Anglican Church, but nevertheless.

King William saved the House of Tudor, the North Irish remember by an annual celebration in the Orange Marches.

Catholicism flourished in Southern provinces of Holland, so the Flemish and Walloons (French speaking) found it timely to fight a war for their independence early 19th century. The secession struggle or Belgian Revolution of late 1830.

The Irish too became a bit restless with Protestant rule and took a bit longer to gain independence of Ireland.

Ambassador Mulhall on Black '47: Ireland's Great Famine and its after-effects

Charles Edward Trevelyan, head of the British treasury, or Exchequer, oversaw all Famine measures after the fall of Prime Minister Robert Peel's Conservative administration to the Whigs, led by Lord John Russell. A proponent of letting free markets operate no matter the consequences, Trevelyan shut down Indian corn depots throughout Ireland and banned a ship headed for Ireland with a cargo of corn for the starving populace, asserting that the Irish could not remain "habitually dependent" on the British government and had to learn how to make "Irish property support [redress] Irish poverty."

Up to one million Irish died of starvation or approx. 12% of the population.

Conflict between landlords and tenants simmered throughout the early 19th century, often escalating to the level of a rural insurgency during the for instance the 'Rockite' rebellion of the 1820s; a protest movement against raised rents and evictions and the 'Tithe War'

of the 1830s, in which the mostly Catholic peasantry violently resisted the collection of tithes or taxes to the Protestant Church of Ireland.

The Impact of British Colonialism on Irish Catholicism and National Identity: Repression, Reemergence, and Divergence

After the reformation and beeldenstorm [think Taliban], Catholics were banned from their churches and went underground for centuries in back rooms and attics: clandestine devotion in Amsterdam.

There was no religious freedom and Dutch Catholics gained the right to practice their religion in public early in 20th century and also freedom of education. The first fifty years were marked by a segregated society. Protestants would not buy groceries in shops owned by Catholics and vice versa. A deep division where still some scars are present today.

King Willem Alexander learned from his grandfather Prince Bernhard never except less as prerogatives are part of the position #lockheedbribes #evaperon #Zorreguieta

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Jan 23rd, 2023 at 05:25:33 PM EST
[ Parent ]
and "Indian" potatoes transplants from the "new world"

< wipe tears >

by Cat on Mon Jan 23rd, 2023 at 06:35:09 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Jan 23rd, 2023 at 07:06:40 PM EST
[ Parent ]

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