Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.
Posted earlier @TikunOlam

Under Ottoman Rule how were Christians, Jews and Sunny Arabs living together in Palestine, the Damascus Eyalet (directorate)? Would be interested in your ancestor's history from 1812 forward.

Spanish Alhambra decree of the Inquisition of 1492, Jewish refugees were welcomed in Constantinople.

Expulsion as Zionism's logical imperative was clearly seen by Herzl as early as June 12, 1895. At the time he was still formulating his ideas about Zionism and confided to his diary: "We shall try to spirit the penniless population [Palestinians] across the border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries, while denying it any employment in our own country. Both the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and circumspectly."

The Jewish-Ottoman Land Company: Herzl's Blueprint for the Colonization of Palestine (1901)

How Theodor Herzl failed to convince the Ottomans to sell Palestine | TRT World |

Before the British allowed European Zionists to colonise Palestine, its chief idealogue, Theodor Herzl, attempted to buy the land from the Ottomans.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Wed Nov 1st, 2023 at 09:28:03 AM EST
Posted earlier @TikunOlam in lively debate ...

Herzl was a man of his time.

Zionism and German Colonial Fantasies

The fallacy of colonizing Palestinian land should never have become doctrine of the Jewish State. Colonizers throughout history of mankind brought with them Genocide of the indigenous peoples. See the life of Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959):

According to Lemkin, colonization was in itself "intrinsically genocidal" He saw this genocide as a two-stage process, the first being the destruction of the indigenous population's way of life. In the second stage, the newcomers impose their way of life on the indigenous group.

In November 1944, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace published Axis Rule in Occupied Europe. This book included an extensive legal analysis of German rule in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during the course of World War II, along with the definition of the term genocide. Lemkin's idea of genocide as an offence against international law was widely accepted by the international community and was one of the legal bases of the Nuremberg Trials. In 1945 to 1946, Lemkin became an advisor to Supreme Court of the United States Justice and Nuremberg Trial chief counsel Robert H. Jackson. The book became one of the foundational texts in Holocaust studies, and the study of totalitarianism, mass violence, and genocide studies.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Wed Nov 1st, 2023 at 09:30:10 AM EST
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On June 24, 1900, Rafał #Lemkin was born, Polish-American jurist, author of the concept of #genocide.
He argued this first at the Nuremberg tribunal, then at the UN in 1948. His first major work began in 1933, when he was a prosecutor in Warsaw.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Wed Nov 1st, 2023 at 09:31:02 AM EST
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Defining an Unimaginable Crime: The Story of Raphael Lemkin | U.S. Holocaust Museum |

Raphael Lemkin, a Polish Jewish lawyer, escaped the Nazis but lost 49 members of his family in the Holocaust. He coined the word "genocide" in 1944 to describe the deliberate attempt to wipe out a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group. Lemkin devoted the last 15 years of his life to lobbying governments to recognize genocide as an international crime and changed the legal landscape. Despite his impact, he died alone and penniless in 1959. Learn about Lemkin's contributions in this discussion [and judicial thinking at United Nations on human rights] with a researcher and Museum historian, recorded on April 7, 2021 and rebroadcast on April 3, 2023.

Dr. Bridget Conley, Research Director, World Peace Foundation, and Associate Research Professor, The Fletcher School, Tufts University

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Wed Nov 1st, 2023 at 09:32:02 AM EST
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Quite insightful and very true ...

Libya in the African Context: a history waiting to be written - By Bridget Conley, World Peace Foundation | 10 Jan 2013 |

As Faraj Najem argues, over modern history, the relationship between Libya and sub-Saharan Africa has been checkered. There are important historic links across the Sahara, especially associated with the Sanussiya of Cyrenaica. Also, nomadic groups in the Fezzan, including the Toubou and Tuareg, range into the neighboring countries. In modern times, Libyan-­"African relations were closely identified with the person of Muammar Gaddafi. Rebuffed by Arab leaders, Gaddafi turned towards Africa and tried to buy influence, while also promoting grandiose visions of himself as the leader of the continent. His military adventurism in the continent included support both for legitimate liberation movements (such as the South Africa's ANC) and for insurgents.

Today, in post-Gaddafi Libya, there is a popular perception that as a result of this largesse sub-Saharan Africans in general, and the African Union (AU) in particular, supported Gaddafi. As a cause or perhaps a consequence of this perception, during the conflict that overthrew Gaddafi many black Libyans fighting on behalf of the former leader were stigmatized as "African mercenaries." This may have been because Libyans did not want to acknowledge that their compatriots were committing violations of human rights. The sum effect is that Libyans in the post-Gaddafi context are leaning away from Africa, albeit with important exceptions such as those countries that actively supported the NTC.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Wed Nov 1st, 2023 at 09:33:33 AM EST
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