Welcome to European Tribune. It's gone a bit quiet around here these days, but it's still going.

CureVac In Germany: Trump's Failed Takeover Bid

by Oui Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 09:44:25 AM EST

In a moment of global crisis, the worst of human kind outs itself ... or society can come together to fight a common enemy. The ultra-narcist in the leader of America came to the forefront: Buy the German vaccine and we'll market as ::

FOR AMERICA ONLY!

"We've got the BEST doctors, scientists, hospitals ... we're doing a great job. Very early I closed to borders to China ... saved thousands of lives!"

More below the fold ...

Frontpaged - Frank Schnittger


MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN!!

h/t Cat on March 2, 2020 ...

Perfect. CSSE has been hijacked "in real-time".

Meanwhile in the lands of greater fool.

Coronavirus funding talks held up over drug price language

The odious haggles over "fair and reasonable" price to re-purchase "large quantities of coronavirus diagnostics, treatments and vaccine when it becomes available" from

Johnson & Johnson, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc., Pfizer Inc., Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline PLC, Gilead Sciences Inc., Novavax Inc., Inovio Pharmaceuticals Inc., CureVac AG and Moderna Inc.

My recent post - MAGA: Trump Poaching German Virologists.

Of course once the theft "for America only" leaked out, the White House PR came forward with a denial after a denial: "We have the best science and virologists, we don't need foreign know-how."

Trump's MAGA Takes a Hit By Merkel

Vaccine 'for the whole world'

On Sunday, the head of CureVac's biggest investor said that an exclusive contract with the US was out of the question.

"We want to develop a vaccine for the whole world and not individual countries," the chief executive of dievini Hopp Bio Tech Holding, Christof Hettich, told the Mannheimer Morgen newspaper, echoing a similar statement in the company's press statement.

Curevac-Investor: "Wollen Impfstoff für die ganze Welt entwickeln"


President Trump Meeting with Pharmaceutical Executives on Coronavirus | C-Span video |

From my earlier post ...

CureVac CEO Daniel Menichella Discusses Coronavirus Vaccine Development with U.S. President Donald Trump and Members of Coronavirus Task Force

TÜBINGEN, Germany/ Boston - March 02, 2020 - Daniel Menichella, CEO of biopharmaceutical company CureVac, was today invited to the White House to discuss strategies and opportunities for the rapid development and production of a coronavirus vaccine with U.S. President Donald Trump, Vice President Mike Pence, members of the White House Coronavirus Task Force and high-ranking representatives of pharmaceutical and biotech companies working on the outbreak's response.

In the discussion, Menichella highlighted the potential of CureVac's mRNA platform for vaccine development based on mRNA technology. "We are very confident that we will be able to develop a potent vaccine candidate within a few months, said CureVac CEO Daniel Menichella. "We can rely on the data of a Phase 1 rabies study in which we were able to immunize all participants with a very low dose. On this basis, we are working intensively to achieve a very low dose for the CoV vaccine as well. In addition, CureVac has a GMP-certified production facility which enables us to produce up to ten million vaccine doses in one production run."

The president reportedly offered biopharmaceutical company CureVac "large sums of money" to develop its COVID-19 vaccine exclusively for the United States

On March 11, CureVac released a statement that CEO Daniel Menichella, a U.S. citizen, was unexpectedly leaving the firm and would be replaced by the company's founder, Ingmar Hoerr. At the start of the month, Menichella was invited to the White House in Washington, D.C., to discuss strategy for the rapid development and production of a coronavirus vaccine with Trump, Vice President Mike Pence and members of the White House coronavirus task force.

CureVac has been working on a COVID-19 vaccine since January. German billionaire Dietmar Hopp, a co-founder of software group SAP and major investor in German professional soccer team TSG Hoffenheim, is the company's main shareholder, followed by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

German Economics Minister Peter Altmaier on Sunday praised CureVac for rejecting the U.S. offers. "Germany is not for sale," said Altmaier. The German government noted as well that CureVac's research has been backed by state subsidies. "The German government has a strong interest in developing treatments and vaccines in Germany and Europe," Altmaier said.

Reports of the Trump offer came over the weekend, as Germany, along with much of Europe, introduced strict new measures to combat the spread of CONVID-19. The World Health Organization has said Europe is the new epicenter of the global pandemic.

Company Founder Ingmar Hoerr Succeeds Daniel Menichella, a US citizen, as CEO of CureVac AG

TÜBINGEN, Germany/ BOSTON - March 11, 2020 - CureVac AG, a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company pioneering the field of mRNA-based drugs, today announced that company founder and Chairman of the Supervisory Board Ingmar Hoerr is replacing Daniel Menichella in his function as Chief Executive Officer (CEO).

"On behalf of the Supervisory Board I would like to thank Dan Menichella very much for the great contributions he has done for CureVac in recent years," said founder and incoming CEO Ingmar Hoerr. "He started as Chief Business Officer of CureVac AG and CEO of CureVac's US subsidiary, prior to his appointment as Chief Executive Officer in 2018. Dan has been developing our business and advancing important product candidates including our phase 1 rabies program CV 7202, our phase 1 immuno oncology therapy trial CV 8102 and the recent start of our Coronavirus vaccine program. He was also largely responsible for the cooperation agreements with Eli Lilly, CRISPR Therapeutics and the Danish biotech company Genmab." I want to thank Dan for his leadership having built a terrific global team.

Hoerr also said: "CureVac has a great team, extraordinary expertise and huge potential. Together, we will continue to focus fully on taking the company to the next stage of its development and advance our clinical product pipeline with the goal of bringing mRNA-based drugs to patients. The vaccine against Covid-19 plays a key role here.".

No surprise .... shine a light on the facts, can't hide from CoV-2 ... European countries and the US have shunned their responsibility to their citizens.

All I've heard from PM Mark Rutte was smooth-talking PR bullshit ... acclaiming the wisdom of his "experts" who in turn praised the "courage" of the politicians. 😎😎

Harvard: 7 myths about social distancing busted (USA Today)

Recent diary ...

Outbreak — Herd Immunity Is Damning!

More to follow ...

Display:
La pandemia potrebbe durare due anni. In Italia 28.000 contagi e 2.000 morti

Government 'herd immunity' strategy tipping Britain towards huge death toll | ESSF |

Jeremy Corbyn's latest message says that the government must be pressed to explain more clearly the science behind their strategy. Absolutely pathetic. In this life and death emergency, studied caution is hardly the point. And Labour's response fails to understand that `science' is being used as a cover for a far-right project of authoritarianism and Social Darwinist eugenics.

The Johnson/Cummings Tories have their priorities. They are to protect the rich and big business, to put profit before people, to keep as much of the economy as possible working regardless of the public health risk, and to allow `surplus people' - the old, the poor, the sick - to die in order to achieve `herd immunity'.

Labour - and the trade unions - should be defending health workers, working people generally, and the most vulnerable, who are overwhelmingly working class. It should be opposing top-down Tory diktat, increased police power, and the defence of corporate interests. It should be arguing for - indeed, organising for - a bottom-up, community-based, democratically-structured response to the crisis.

Don't trust the Tories. Don't trust the corporations. Don't trust the police. We need popular action to protect ourselves and our families, friends, and colleagues from a global pandemic created by capitalist agribusiness and fostered by decades of neoliberal attacks on the welfare state.

Budgeting for covid-19: changing the narrative and narrating the change

The UK government's plan for dealing with covid-19 has now moved from the "contain" phase to the "delay" stage. This is just a recognition of reality. The World Health Organization has confirmed that the outbreak is now a pandemic, and the spread of disease is moving as expected. The move to the "delay" phase raises the question of what an effective UK reaction to pandemic covid-19 is going to look like, other than to buy us some preparation time.

ITV's political editor Robert Peston has a close working relationship with sources inside Boris Johnson's government, and his latest blog outlines the government's "herd immunity"strategy.  It is worth quoting: "The strategy of the British government in minimising the impact . . . is to allow the virus to pass through the entire population so that we acquire herd immunity, but at a much delayed speed so that those who suffer the most acute symptoms are able to receive the medical support they need, and such that the health service is not overwhelmed and crushed by the sheer number of cases it has to treat at any one time."

Peston reports that the government's plans are based on scientific advice that covid-19 cannot now be contained and that the draconian measures seen in China are likely only to delay its spread, which will resume once freedom of movement returns.

Dutch PM Mark Rutte parrots the Pentagon, Trump and now Boris Johnson on the scientific advice to control the COVID-19 pandemic ...

Excerpt of Prime Minister Rutte's National Address in English | NL Times |

The reality is that the coronavirus is among us and will remain among us for the time being. There is no easy or quick way out of this very difficult situation. The reality is that in the near future a large part of the Dutch population will be infected with the virus.

That is what the experts are telling us now. And what they also tell us is that, pending a vaccine or medicine, we can slow down the spread of the virus while at the same time building group immunity in a controlled way.

I have to explain that.

Those who have had the virus are usually immune afterwards. Just like in the old days with measles. The larger the group that is immune, the less chance that the virus will jump to vulnerable elderly people and people with poor health. With group immunity you build, as it were, a protective wall around them.

That is the principle. But we have to realize that it can take months or even longer to build up group immunity and during that time we need to shield people who are at greater risk as much as possible.

All in all, there are three possible scenarios. The first scenario is: maximally controlling the virus. This leads to controlled distribution among groups that are least at risk.

That is our scenario of choice. Maximum control means that we try to use measures to level off and smooth the peak in the number of infections and spread it over a longer period.

With this approach in which most people will only get minor complaints, we build immunity and ensure that the healthcare system can handle it. With the aim that nursing homes, in-home care, hospitals, and especially intensive care units are not overloaded. So that there is always sufficient capacity to help the people who are most vulnerable.

Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary

Given limited supplies of vaccines, antiviral drugs, and ventilators, non-pharmaceutical interventions are likely to dominate the public health response to any pandemic, at least in the near term. The six papers that make up this chapter describe scientific approaches to maximizing the benefits of quarantine and other nonpharmaceutical strategies for containing infectious disease as well as the legal and ethical considerations that should be taken into account when adopting such strategies. The authors of the first three papers raise a variety of legal and ethical concerns associated with behavioral approaches to disease containment and mitigation that must be addressed in the course of pandemic planning, and the last three papers describe the use of computer modeling for crafting disease containment strategies.

More specifically, the chapter's first paper, by Lawrence Gostin and Benjamin Berkman of Georgetown University Law Center, presents an overview of the legal and ethical challenges that must be addressed in preparing for pandemic influenza. The authors observe that even interventions that are effective in a public health sense can have profound adverse consequences for civil liberties and economic status. They go on to identify several ethical and human rights concerns associated with behavioral interventions that would likely be used in a pandemic, and they discuss ways to minimize the social consequences of such interventions.

The next essay argues that although laws give decision makers certain powers in a pandemic, those decision makers must inevitably apply ethical tenets to decide if and how to use those powers because "law cannot anticipate the specifics of each public health emergency." Workshop panelist James LeDuc of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and his co-authors present a set of ethical guidelines that should be employed in pandemic preparation and response. They also identify a range of legal issues relevant to social-distancing measures. If state and local governments are to reach an acceptable level of public health preparedness, the authors say, they must give systematic attention to the ethical and legal issues, and that preparedness should be tested, along with other public health measures, in pandemic preparation exercises.

LeDuc's fellow panelist Victoria Sutton of Texas Tech University also considered the intersection of law and ethics in public health emergencies in general and in the specific case of pandemic influenza. In particular, Sutton identified several "choke points"--particularly thorny ethical and legal issues--that present barriers to pandemic mitigation. In addition to the problem of leadership, which is addressed in the next chapter, these issues include the role of interdisciplinary and intersectoral approaches in decision-making; the tradeoffs between personal freedom and public good that are implicit in social-distancing measures; the global implications of quarantine and travel restrictions; the need for consistency among various disease-control policies; and the definition of appropriate, measurable "triggers" for when to impose each potential countermeasure.

SARS, the First Pandemic of the 21st Century

Related reading ...

Feasibility of controlling COVID-19 outbreaks by isolation of cases and contacts | The Lancet - Feb. 28, 2020 |
Scientists were close to a coronavirus vaccine years ago. Then the money dried up | Texas Galveston Lab - James LeDuc |

Dutch Breaking News: Death toll rises to 43 and a total of 1705 cases, of which 389 people are working in health care | RIVM |

From Mark Rutte yesterday:

    "That is what the experts are telling us now. And what they also tell us is that, pending a vaccine or medicine, we can slow down the spread of the virus while at the same time building group immunity in a controlled way.

    ... it's important, continue to use common sense and listen to the experts."

New Coronavirus Research Shows That The SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus Has A Fourth Route Of Attacking Human Host Cells Making It A Real Super Virus | Thailand Medical - March 15, 2020 |

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 01:34:12 PM EST
Yes, well they are backing away from that approach, it seems.

After failing to mandate widespread social distancing last week, an approach that went against the grain of the rest of the world and advice from the World Health Organization, the UK government has now started to ease these restrictions in. It is not clear if this was part of the plan of escalation all along, or rather a U-turn precipitated by robust criticism.


It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II
by eurogreen on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 04:11:32 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Trump and Johnson exchanges in their profound wisdom ... when in math 1 plus 1 equals zero.

The discrepancy between the analysis and statements (warnings) from the WHO and what the public got from the White House and Downing Street became a stark contrast.

WE Forum: 3 charts that helped change coronavirus policy in the UK and US

In his first daily press conference on the coronavirus pandemic on 16 March, the UK's Prime Minister Boris Johnson outlined a raft of new key measures to curb the spread of infection, saying "drastic action" was needed.

They include avoiding gathering in public places, working from home where possible, everyone in a household self-isolating for 14 days if one person gets sick, and the over-70s and most vulnerable minimizing social contact.

At the same time, the White House released new guidelines [NYT] urging Americans to avoid gatherings of more than 10, to work from home, only shop for essential items and stop eating in restaurants.

A Squabble :: Donald and Boris on the China virus ... it's foreign to me. Donald by phone: "I did warn you Boris, you wouldn't listen ... that Huawei 5G is a danger to our National Security. We got it through travel from our greatest ally., and your London City airport. We were gonna bail you out from that Brexit crisis, now look what's leftover from my gains on Wall Street -- #!$%*&£." ☹

...

These three charts show the impact of doing nothing, compared to taking more drastic action, according to the report, which has not yet been peer-reviewed.

To find the best-case scenario for reducing the number of deaths and impact on the hospitals, the report modelled two different strategies for dealing with the outbreak in both countries.


  • Mitigation: Focuses on "slowing but not necessarily stopping epidemic spread - reducing peak healthcare demand while protecting those most at risk of severe disease from infection".

  • Suppression: Aims to "reverse epidemic growth, reducing case numbers to low levels and maintaining that situation indefinitely".

While both strategies pose challenges, the scientists found that mitigation measures (home isolation of those with symptoms and others in the household and social distancing of the elderly and vulnerable) would reduce deaths by half and peak healthcare demands by two-thirds.

But the outbreak would still result in 250,000 deaths in Britain, and 1.1 to 1.2 million in the US, with the 'surge capacity' of intensive care units overwhelmed "at least eight-fold".

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 05:45:31 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Source report here.

It looks as if the UK government got it badly wrong and now realizes this.

But what on earth is Mark Rutte thinking?

Index of Frank's Diaries

by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:02:14 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Presumptuous ... thinking?

Mostly a copy-cat formula of policy from Boris (Europe) and Occupier in the White House (World).

In the Obama years, Rutte speeches almost proverbial in essence. Anglophile and some common dreams: Royal Shell and Unilever.

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:18:17 PM EST
[ Parent ]
WV.gov: Nonpharmaceutical Interventions

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) are actions, apart from getting vaccinated and taking medicine, that people and communities can take to help slow the spread of illnesses like influenza (flu) or COVID-19. NPIs are also known as community mitigation strategies.

The resources below provide guidance on what steps we can all take to control the spread of illnesses like influenza or COVID-19.

[...]

Additional Resources

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:45:44 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 09:12:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]
His great-grandmother would not have accepted any order from the PM ...

Dutch King's Speech On The Coronavirus Pandemic | NL Times |

Abstract / a quote:

We can also be proud of the specialists at the RIVM (the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment), the municipal health services and all the other expert bodies that are showing us the way with information based on scientific research and knowledge based on experience. Y

They are under enormous pressure. It's important that we continue to place our trust in them and follow all their instructions. Their one and only aim is to get us through this crisis together as best we can whilst minimising the risks for those who are vulnerable.

Almost religious trust to be placed in their experts .. no one should question their "science".

From a good friend of mine who is a senior advisor to members of Dutch Parliament, most knew Mark Rutte was deceiving the public about his "herd immunity" policy. However oppostion parties decided it was more important to show unity. Horrible, what is parliament for in a democracy, but to scrutinize policy put in place for health and welfare of tens of thousands.

RIVM and the regional GGD have NOT followed the instructions from the WHO based on experience about the CoV-2 outbreak in SE Asia and China. I will add a graph below ...

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 08:57:33 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 11:13:08 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 01:54:34 PM EST
That long quote on "Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary" is a load of waffle! Tell us something we don't know!

Index of Frank's Diaries
by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 02:11:00 PM EST
by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 03:12:46 PM EST
by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 03:13:37 PM EST
[ Parent ]
additional reporting from WA presses about this "clinical trial" and disclaimers--garnished by LOL interviews with select (paid) volunteer subjects. I gather, this thing has no pre-clinical test results. So, PHASE 0 is a stretch.

normal, US clinical trial, phase 0-IV criteria
popular digest
FDA digest

by Cat on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:55:10 PM EST
[ Parent ]

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:32:09 PM EST
waitwut. China expelled two WSJ editors weeks ago over the "Sick Man of Asia" headline. There were more ahh US journalists in the wings awaiting Khashoggi cues?
by Cat on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:59:07 PM EST
[ Parent ]

NY Yella Cake, WSJ, WaPoo. tbh, can you fault China?
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 05:24:16 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I medici di Cuba pronti ad aiutare la Lombardia ???

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 06:52:09 PM EST
Pfizer and BioNTech to Co-Develop Potential COVID-19 Vaccine

NEW YORK & MAINZ, Germany -- Pfizer Inc. and BioNTech SE today announced that the companies have agreed to a letter of intent regarding the co-development and distribution (excluding China)  of a potential mRNA-based coronavirus vaccine aimed at preventing COVID-19 infection. The companies have executed a Material Transfer and Collaboration Agreement to enable the parties to immediately start working together.

The collaboration aims to accelerate development of BioNTech's potential first-in-class COVID-19 mRNA vaccine program, BNT162, which is expected to enter clinical testing by the end of April 2020. The rapid advancement of this collaboration builds on the research and development collaboration into which Pfizer and BioNTech entered in 2018 to develop mRNA-based vaccines for prevention of influenza.

"We are proud that our ongoing, successful relationship with BioNTech gives our companies the resiliency to mobilize our collective resources with extraordinary speed in the face of this worldwide challenge," said Mikael Dolsten, Chief Scientific Officer and President, Worldwide Research, Development & Medical, Pfizer.

BioNTech's Chinese Partnership

    As part of the development program, BioNTech announced a strategic alliance with China's Fosun Pharma to jointly develop its vaccine in China.

Coronavirus: German, US companies sign deal to develop vaccine | DW |
BioNTech Signs Collaboration Agreement with Pfizer to Developm RNA‐based Vaccines for Prevention of Influenza | Press Release - Aug. 16, 2018 |

%@$#€*! First Communist Cuba and now our greatest foe Communist China ... social isolation and ComIntern. Bah!

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:13:00 PM EST
;-)

Coronavirus news - live: Police given power to arrest infected as chancellor promises businesses £330bn in loans and UK death toll rises to 71 | The Independent |

White House considering giving Americans checks to combat economic impact of outbreak | NBC News |

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:33:34 PM EST
Yes Minister, always a propos:

by Bernard on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:38:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
knowledge bank deposit:
US researchers start < reckless eyeballin' > human trials for coronavirus vaccine
from PRECISION INSTRUMENT nation
< wipes tears >
gotta love it
by Cat on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:37:37 PM EST
If it has even a 10% chance of being effective, the risk benefit may point in the direction of cutting a few corners (i.e. 4 stages of clinical trials...).


Index of Frank's Diaries
by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:49:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 08:07:11 PM EST
[ Parent ]
19 more coronavirus patients die, 292 more cases diagnosed | NL Times |

    Some 314 required hospitalization, the RIVM said. Nearly 100 were in intensive care [50% under 50 yrs], according to one Dutch medical association. Roughly 23 percent of those infected work in the healthcare field. The RIVM said that part of the reason there were more reported infections in this field is because those workers are tested more frequently [???].

    There were 634 patients known to be living in Noord-Brabant. Another 197 were reported in Limburg, and 175 in Zuid-Holland, the RIVM said.

Dutch gov't to cover 90% of salaries lost for work hours reduction: Report

The ruling Dutch Cabinet said it would expand a program to provide relief to employers who have been negatively affected by the coronavirus pandemic. The program concerns businesses in crisis that want to temporarily reduce their salaried workers' contracted hours and adjust their pay accordingly. The scheme currently provides government funding to cover 75 percent of the lost wages, paid directly to the employee, with the employer covering the remainder.

That is set to increase to a 90 percent maximum guarantee from the government, reported broadcaster NOS based on anonymous sources. The move is in addition to the expanded BMKB financing program for small and mid-sized businesses, where a credit facility is provided by the bank with the government committing to repay up to 90 percent of the money lent if the company is unable to repay.

Dutch flag carrier KLM was one of the companies to apply to the ministry for permission. It planned to slash the hours of 70 percent of its staff as it reduced its passenger schedule down to just 10 to 20 percent of normal operations.

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 07:45:26 PM EST
BoJo tearing up ... will his child be born in the EU-28th nation? Oh dear ...

UK 'prepares to seek Brexit transition extension' as coronavirus crisis grows | Telegraph |

Detailed Brexit trade negotiations planned for this week were cancelled on Monday, with Government sources indicating that the UK is preparing the ground to seek a mutually agreed extension to the talks in the coming weeks.

As the coronavirus crisis deepened, senior Whitehall sources also confirmed that civil servants who had been working on Brexit "no deal" preparations were being actively redeployed into virus crisis management.

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 08:24:06 PM EST

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 08:29:20 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The U.K.'s Coronavirus `Herd Immunity' Debacle| The Atlantic |

There was a time when it seemed possible for the world to contain COVID-19--the disease caused by the new coronavirus. That time is over. What began as an outbreak in China has become a pandemic, and as a growing number of countries struggle to control the virus, talk of "flattening the curve" is increasing.

...
Almost every country is trying to achieve this goal through the standard arsenal of public health--testing people and tracing contacts--and through more restrictive measures that include instituting quarantines, closing public spaces, banning mass gatherings, and issuing strong advice about social distancing.

But on Thursday, at a press conference, Boris Johnson seemingly revealed that the United Kingdom would adopt a different strategy. The government would no longer try to track and trace the contacts of every suspected case, and it would test only people who are admitted to hospitals. In lieu of any major social-distancing measures, Johnson instead offered a suite of soft advice--people with symptoms should stay home; no school trips abroad; people over 70 should avoid cruises.

...
To avoid a second peak in the winter, Sir Patrick Vallance said the U.K. would suppress the virus "but not get rid of it completely," while focusing on protecting vulnerable groups, such as the elderly. In the meantime, other people would get sick. But since the virus causes milder illness in younger age groups, most would recover and subsequently be immune to the virus. This "herd immunity" would reduce transmission in the event of a winter resurgence. On Sky News, Vallance said that "probably about 60 percent" of people would need to be infected to achieve herd immunity.

[Read on ...]

In The Netherlands, PM Mark Rutte followed suite .... warned everyone should unite behind his policy and avoid criticism ... the Dutch sheeple were brave and applauded the master. I did not as I have lost trust in the PM for being too right-wing and lacks honesty. I know math and numbers, I didn't buy this policy from the outset. Fortunately, more opposition is coming from across the globe: WHO Europe, Prof. Roberto Burioni from Milan, Italy and in both the US and UK.

I'm an epidemiologist. When I heard about Britain's 'herd immunity' coronavirus plan, I thought it was satire | The Guardian |

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 11:25:20 PM EST
Britain Drops Its Go-It-Alone Approach to Coronavirus | FP |

On Monday night, that theory collided with the facts. A new analysis by immunologists at Imperial College London and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine of the impact of the coronavirus in Italy suggested that up to 30 percent of patients hospitalized with the virus would require intensive care treatment. Those numbers, if repeated in the U.K., would quickly overwhelm Britain's state-run National Health Service.

Within hours of the report, U.K. Prime Minister Boris Johnson appeared at a daily briefing at No. 10 Downing St. to reverse the herd immunity policy. Acknowledging that "drastic action" was required, Johnson announced that from now on Britons should try to work from home and voluntarily refrain from unnecessary travel and social contact.

But Johnson's tone, Britain's policy, and indeed the reaction of many Britons remained in strong contrast to the rest of Europe--a striking echo of the prime minister's go-it-alone approach to Brexit earlier in the year. Johnson is now taking an approach closer to that of U.S. President Donald Trump--appealing to the public for voluntary cooperation rather than ordering it--than to that of the European Union.

The 'herd immunity' route to fighting coronavirus is unethical and potentially dangerous

by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 11:42:51 PM EST
[ Parent ]
He still hasn't closed schools and colleges. Parents can't distance themselves from young kids. All it takes is one infected child to infect the whole school community - and then some.

Index of Frank's Diaries
by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 01:19:10 AM EST
[ Parent ]
In USA they've been closing themselves one by one since last week. k-12 needed the gov OK, because TBTF factors. The latest trend in higher-ed (set by Hahvahd liege) is capitulation  of ahh distance learning goals, 2020 pass/fail grading thus ends "merit" scoring controls in Academia.

An excerpt from "outreach" mssg sent to my associate's inbox today, suggest the college president has a way to go before accept inevitable decision to junk the distance learning solution.

It is hard for me to believe that only two days ago students were packing belongings and moving off campus. In that short time, we have seen major metropolitan areas issue shelter-in-place orders and the U.S. government offer guidance to close schools and many public-meeting places. Here in Waterville, city officials have ordered schools, restaurants, and bars to close immediately. As I write this, Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Maine CDC) is reporting that there have been 32 positive tests for COVID-19 in the state, one in our county. The state number nearly doubled overnight, and we are expecting many more confirmed cases in the days ahead.

The campus is quiet. By tomorrow there will be approximately 150 students on campus, and that number will be closer to 100 by the end of the week, depending on travel availability. With support from the Center for Teaching and Learning and our information technology team, professors are working from home to place course materials online. The vast majority of our staff members are working remotely, and those who do come to campus are working under strict rules that require social distancing. We have closed the libraries, Museum, and athletic center, and visitors are not allowed on campus. The only dining services available are grab-and-go meals. Each of these changes is designed to limit the spread of infection.
[...]
It is important for you to know that we will be following the directives of our state public health officials and have obligations to protect the medical privacy of members of our community. This might mean that we cannot be as forthcoming about individual circumstances as you might wish. My advice to all of you is the same advice I give to myself: we should recognize that if we have been interacting with friends, colleagues, and the general public over the last few weeks, we could have been exposed to the virus and possibly--unknowingly and unintentionally--shared it with others. In my view, knowing that requires us to be vigilant in employing all reasonable means to halt the spread of the virus, including the most simple habits of heightened hygiene and social distancing. And if we experience symptoms that are consistent with being infected by COVID-19, we should call medical professionals for their guidance on whether testing is appropriate.

I want to close on a more personal note. ...

the significance of sour dough bread this 17 March &tc.
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 01:56:20 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 04:27:57 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 08:21:09 AM EST
[ Parent ]
In the most crucial Address to the Nation, PM Mark Rutte defended his "well-founded" herd-immunity to protect future generations of the Dutch people. "Many loved ones will die." Do I hear Boris Johnson speaking ...

Coronavirus: Johnson warns 'many more families are going to lose loved ones'

Cracks In Rutte's Wall of Herd Immunity | De Volkskrant |

Group immunity ("herd immunity") is a classic from medical textbooks, where it ended up in 1923 after experiments by British bacteriologist William Topley.

Rutte said it as if it were a given. "The reality is that a large part of the Dutch population will become infected with the virus in the near future." Let the virus "circulate in a controlled manner among people who are not bothered by it," as RIVM advisor Jaap van Dissel described at Nieuwsuur. "the idea behind this policy."

But in the UK, where science consultant Patrick Vallance unfolded the same philosophy, it sparked a storm of criticism. Young people and young adults are less affected by the disease, but a minority can become seriously ill and in rare cases even die from the virus. "Heartless" and "dangerous" to expose them on purpose, even if controlled, British scientists raged. Large numbers still threaten "Italian scenes", medical microbiologist Roel Coutinho said in de Volkskrant on Tuesday.

Around 60% of NL residents must get Covid-19 for herd immunity: RIVM

Doing the math in a nation of 17.5 million, 60% infected is 10.5 million of which half is older than 50 yrs. Simple numbers would mean 75,000 loved ones will die in a small country of The Netherlands ... health care could NOT cope with the number of patients. Comparison with the Spanish Flu arise ... political leaders?

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 09:13:53 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Tue Mar 17th, 2020 at 11:54:04 PM EST
How in HELL did US Congress not know this?!
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 12:34:02 AM EST
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 02:31:15 AM EST
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 08:12:38 AM EST

When it comes to national emergencies, Britain has a tradition of cold calculation | The Guardian |

What's the best way to respond to a global health emergency? For countries like Italy, Spain, South Korea and Denmark, the answer is closing schools and public spaces to limit infection.

...
The British state has always been good at making shrewd utilitarian calculations. In two crucial moments during the 20th century, the government thought that it wasn't worth attempting to protect the population in any serious way because the damage wrought by drastic policy interventions would be too great. Both Neville Chamberlain and Harold Macmillan's governments made minimal preparations for anticipated disasters: bombing in the 1930s, and nuclear war in the 1950s. In both cases, the government aimed to do the minimum necessary to allay fears.

In a roundabout way, they thought the future wellbeing of British citizens would depend on the government's parsimonious decision to not overinvest in defensive infrastructure. Both governments hoped to avoid war by deterring an attack and by keeping the economy strong. Far better to spend on methods of attacking Germany and the Soviet Union than on buttressing the island against attacks from the air.

...
The most famous prewar structure was the flimsy Anderson shelter, a set of corrugated iron sheets erected in people's gardens. It remains an emblematic image of the late 1930s. The shelter was named after the minister responsible for air raid precautions, Sir John Anderson, who had a PhD in chemistry.

It's NOT that mankind is powerless, the political leaders are ill prepared and lack vision.

Global arms trade is a nearly 200 billion business and the US drives nearly 80% of it | CNBC |

Still military expenditures to counter the Red Menace are insufficient, Trump finds ... soon modern mini-nukes to be placed in Europe.

NATO's Original Purpose: Double Containment of the Soviet Union and "Resurgent" Germany

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 11:34:56 AM EST
Coronavirus Outbreak: Spreading fastest in London | The Guardian | [UK cases update]

Words of Courage ... replace the WWII enemy by the new invasion of CoV-2 - a foreign entity caught us by surprise. Brexit would return Great Britain's freedom and sovereignty. That's how the Brexiteers won the election ... ill prepared and the NHS underfunded. Soon the Empire will have new nuclear submarines ...

... history tells us how it all ended, coming around @10 o'olock - here.

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 12:09:13 PM EST
[ Parent ]

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 01:29:48 PM EST
Scientists have been sounding the alarm on coronavirus for months. Why did Britain fail to act?

Most of the 41 people described in this first report, published in the Lancet, presented with non-specific symptoms of fever and cough. More than half had difficulties in breathing. But most worryingly of all, a third of these patients had such a severe illness that they had to be admitted to an intensive care unit. Most developed a critical complication of their viral pneumonia - acute respiratory distress syndrome. Half died.

The Chinese scientists pulled no punches. "The number of deaths is rising quickly," they wrote. The provision of personal protective equipment for health workers was strongly recommended. Testing for the virus should be done immediately a diagnosis was suspected. They concluded that the mortality rate was high. And they urged careful surveillance of this new virus in view of its "pandemic potential".

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 02:54:37 PM EST
Even the UK is using its diplomatic channels to have the US relieve harsh sanctions for medical supplies during coronavirus outbreak.

#humanity is not a word in the vocabulary of the Trump/Pence White House.

UK presses US to ease Iran sanctions to help fight coronavirus | The Guardian |

Zarif urges world states to join `global campaign to disregard' US bans | PressTV |

UAE sends medical aid to Iran as coronavirus outbreak intensifies | al-Monitor |

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 03:46:44 PM EST
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 04:16:38 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Dutch CoV-2 hits 2051 total added 15 deaths and 346 new infections | NL Times |

Lombardy death toll up 319 in single day

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 04:44:28 PM EST
"Bij saving lives, we save the economy."

The coronavirus threat to economy -- 'Shut it down now' | CNBC |

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 06:56:20 PM EST
now, Why would the press want to remind Americans about MBS bubble bursting and "Recovery.gov"?
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 08:37:26 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Senate passes coronavirus package as Treasury proposes rescue with emergency checks
$500B total proposed. Inexplicable social media comparisons to the gift of Universal Basic Income (UBI). Kamala?! crawling out of crypt with LIFT promo.

Which coincides with me reminiscing, reviewing Bush (2001, dotcom 9/11) and Obama (2009) "stim-pack" dramas. One (R), one (D) combo tax cuts and accelerated tax "rebates": money earned and exclued from US Treasury collections. tbh, unembloyment insurance benefit extension over two years is what kept The Economy afloat.

I had seen a tweet by an obscure "policy analyst" wondering how homeless and "unbanked" persons could get checks. Simple answer: They won't. Unless miracle. Typically, they are excluded from these middle-class sops, for one reason: INSUFFICIENT employment/quarter and tax filing. More pathetic, SSA programmatic benefit distribution was not mentioned once by an earnest "solutions" correspondent.

by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 09:04:25 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Democrats balk at $1,200 rebate checks in stimulus plan
People who pay little to nothing in income taxes but earned at least $2,500 would get a minimum rebate of $600.
Each "check" amounts to ~ 10% advance of total standard deduction from taxable income, ergo min refund of tax withheld 2019; joint and head of household filers less % than individuals. In any event, unemployment insurance (UI) benefit payments are taxed as earned income, as is the custom.

< yawn >

To conclude, 2/3 of social media policy poseurs were in elementary school (2001), 1/3 in middle-school (2009). The "poors" treading US informal economy can expect zip, zero, nada, 0 windfall.

by Cat on Sat Mar 21st, 2020 at 02:24:24 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sun Mar 22nd, 2020 at 01:24:57 PM EST
[ Parent ]
George Soros betting against the British £££, investing in Argentinian bonds by Paul Singer or the silver exploits by the Hunt Bros. Or even John McCaine and the Keating Five home mortgages scandal. Making some VERY BIG BUCKS ... someone else is paying the price. Capitalism in its purest form. How the CoV-2 [C stands for Communist of course] virus is conquering America, traveling via Western Europe ...

by Oui on Sun Mar 22nd, 2020 at 01:36:27 PM EST
[ Parent ]
PM Mark Rutte and his cabinet ministers fail to take responsibility for their laissez-fair approach to the CoV-2 pandemic. Rutte even manages to DENY what he said in the Address to the Nation two days ago and what his RIVM director has been preaching for weeks. "No, herd-immunity was not a goal in attacking the coronavirus, it was a product of our option."

In his Address to the Nation on Monday:

    The reality is that the coronavirus is among us and will remain among us for the time being. There is no easy or quick way ou of this very difficult situation. The reality is that in the near future a large part of the Dutch population will be infected with the virus.

    That is what the experts are telling us now. And what they also tell us is that, pending a vaccine or medicine, we can slow down the spread of the virus while at the same time building group immunity in a controlled way.

    I have to explain that.

    Those who have had the virus are usually immune afterwards. Just like in the old days with measles. The larger the group that is immune, the less chance that the virus will jump to vulnerable elderly people and people with poor health. With group immunity you build, as it were, a protective wall around them.

    That is the principle. But we have to realize that it can take months or even longer to build up group immunity and during that time we need to shield people who are at greater risk as much as possible.

    "Asscher (PvdA) puts a finger on the sore spot: After Rutte's speech, the problem arose that group immunity is the goal. That was not the intention, but that is how it came across."

Jaap van Dissel appointed as Director of the RIVM Centre for Infectious Disease Control

All his tweets in a timeline ... from outbreak in China from January 21 onwards. Ill prepared and ill informed of the facts. Rutte claims today he was following the lead from WHO ... another BIG lie as I have written just a few days ago!

Boris Johnson's Herd Immunity Debacle, Mark Rutte follows suite

The Coronovirus in tweets from RIVM - a timeline | Elseviers |

by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 09:08:53 PM EST
That's OK.
Russia deploying coronavirus disinformation to sow panic in West, EU document says
"The overarching aim of Kremlin disinformation is to aggravate the public health crisis in Western countries...in line with the Kremlin's broader strategy of attempting to subvert European societies," the document produced by the EU's foreign policy arm, the European External Action Service, said.
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 09:40:35 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 10:36:15 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Trump's Best Friend: Dutch PM Mark Rutte | @EuroTrib |

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 08:34:21 AM EST
[ Parent ]
The larger the group that is immune, the less chance that the virus will jump to vulnerable elderly people and people with poor health.

Anecdotal evidence is enough to conclusively demonstrate the sheer insanity of this approach.

I just got off the phone with a youg family member in the UK. Gig economy, two zero-hours contracts. She lives in a household of four, all in the same demographic. ALL of them work in close contact with vulnerable people.

One is an optometrist. He has a lot of elderly clients. None will die if they don't get new glasses, but his employer can't afford to close down. One of his colleagues is off work with suspected coronavirus.

Do I need to go on?

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II

by eurogreen on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 11:44:45 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Only an hour ago, I pedantically noted in the twittervoid the Bank Holiday of '33.
New York Stock Exchange to temporarily close trading floor due to coronavirus
All NYSE markets will continue to operate under normal trading hours despite the closure of the trading floors."
[...]
The Dow closed down 6.3%, or 1,338 points, and has now erased most of its gains accumulated under the Trump administration. The S&P 500 is also edging closer to falling below its January 2017 level. The index finished down 5.2%. The Nasdaq Composite closed down 4.7%.
alrighty then. Shuffling the six-day holiday of 9/11 in the CRISIS! pack.
by Cat on Wed Mar 18th, 2020 at 09:54:53 PM EST
Covert Operations by Israel's Mossad to extricate CoV-2 test kits from foreign countries:

Operation Wuhan - 100,000 testing kits | The Guardian |

by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:03:02 PM EST
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:14:27 PM EST
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:19:48 PM EST
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:25:12 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:29:39 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Graphic: Report of the WHO-China joint mission on COVID-19

by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 06:39:30 PM EST
Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19),28 Feb, 40 pp
--
Sadly, the people who need to read this (so that ROW can live in the present) are most ignorant, illiterate, and venal on planet.

I suppose, Fighting COVID-19 The China Way is the China Daily reference promoted in the CCTV tweet. For those in the USA, behind the curve, temptations to re-invent or re-name the wheel will be fierce. (DJT has only just discovered near ancient malarial pharmacopia today. Next month Master Fauci introduces chloroquine phosphate to his Happy Meal®).

OTOH, I still eagerly await from DJT's intelligence team the date that window of "severe not mild" novel coronavirus notice to ROW occurred, prior to 13 Jan.

by Cat on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 11:54:35 PM EST
[ Parent ]
o'er red tape, today's presser

archived: Feb 5th, 2020, Dec 5th, 2018
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 12:13:58 AM EST
[ Parent ]
'Bad advice from the president': Trump touts unproven coronavirus drugs
"What we're talking about today is beyond Right to Try," Trump said, adding that the law "has been a tremendous success."
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 02:50:58 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Poll SMOKE: Majority of Americans now approve of Trump's coronavirus* management
An ABC News/Ipsos poll released Friday [20 Mar] reports that 55 percent of respondents approve of Trump's management of the public health crisis, while 43 percent disapprove. The latest figures represent a boost in the president's rating from the previous iteration of the survey, published one week ago, which showed only 43 percent approval for Trump and 54 percent disapproval.

--
* read: financial relief enacted 13-19 Mar, promise of $1,200 cash bonus/HH
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 03:00:29 PM EST
[ Parent ]
It's the patriotic attempt to buy the alleged German vaccine.

What a guy.

It is rightly acknowledged that people of faith have no monopoly of virtue - Queen Elizabeth II

by eurogreen on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 03:01:49 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 07:44:08 PM EST

My earlier post about Yuval Hariri - Big Capitalism and Devaluation of Human Life.

by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 07:47:55 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 07:48:25 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Wed Mar 25th, 2020 at 02:03:23 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Bibi is watching you: Israel sends in the spies to tackle coronavirus | ME Eye |

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 10:46:53 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Tue Mar 24th, 2020 at 10:48:48 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Moscow to Build New $135M Coronavirus Hospital - Reports

Coronavirus: Temporary hospital being built in Moscow | BBC News Report |

by Oui on Thu Mar 19th, 2020 at 08:29:11 PM EST

Republican senators sold stocks before markets plunged on Covid-19 fears - reports | The Guardian |

Tucker Carlson calls on Burr to resign amid reports of stock selloff | The Hill |

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 07:26:51 AM EST
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 09:11:52 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 12:44:02 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Don't they all have blind trusts to which they divest private "wealth" when installed in public office?

[INSERT #EMOLUMENTS]

by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 01:00:37 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 01:32:07 PM EST
[ Parent ]
71% of Americans oppose reparations for descendants of US slavery?
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 02:28:58 PM EST
[ Parent ]
There's always more to the story, but try to act surprised.
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 03:25:02 PM EST
[ Parent ]
HFT VICTIM? or hedge fund COLLABORATOR?
You be the judge.
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 03:27:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 03:41:53 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Jeffrey Sprecher ...

His spouse:

Oops: Senator Kelly Loeffler Dumped Millions in Stock While Downplaying Coronavirus Risks | Vanity Fair |

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 04:01:57 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 05:47:54 PM EST
[ Parent ]
In the California Petty Landlords' bunker, inmates are dusting off their "DOW 18K" hats. Much vitriol mixing FRB, PPT repos and China secrecy cascading from keyboards...
by Cat on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 08:34:24 PM EST
[ Parent ]
CoV-2: Dutch deaths increase 40% in a day; infections increased by 534 to nearly 3000 total

Thus far, the public health services in the Netherlands said they are able to test about a thousand t per day. That limitation means they test the elderly, those in vulnerable health, and health care workers first. They no longer test the immediate family of coronavirus patients when relatives show symptoms. The RIVM confirmed to NL Times that they assume they are infected, and act accordingly, but they are not logged in the official statistics unless a positive test is recorded.

"The actual number of infections with COVID-19 is higher than the number of reports in this update, because not everyone with potential infection is tested anymore," the RIVM said.

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 02:36:59 PM EST
Expression of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in SARS-CoV-infected ACE2+ cells in SARS patients: Relation to the acute lung injury and pathogenesis of SARS

by Oui on Fri Mar 20th, 2020 at 11:32:16 PM EST
Chinese clinicians detected and published that demographic detail in early Feb Wuhan etiology. In English. This is another "concerning" discovery--besides false natural immunity in < 40 y.o. cohort--US feds chose to ignore or directed MSM not to publicize.
by Cat on Sat Mar 21st, 2020 at 12:00:27 AM EST
[ Parent ]

Gautret et al. (2020) Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID‐19: Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

by Oui on Sat Mar 21st, 2020 at 07:58:18 AM EST

Which Masks Actually Protect Against Coronavirus?

by Oui on Sat Mar 21st, 2020 at 12:43:42 PM EST


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