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Nuclear Arms Race Negates Goal of Green Energy Transition

by Oui Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 03:04:57 PM EST

It takes courage in leadership which has been universally lacking during the SARS CoV-02 pandemic since end of 2019. The choice between survival or watching the slow, agonizing death of nations and its people across the globe.


US ’special relationship' label makes Britain look weak and needy

Mr Biden used an opinion article in the Washington Post this week to signal his support for Mr Johnson's goal to use the G7 meeting to agree tougher commitments on tackling climate change and to bolster democracies worldwide.

However, reports also emerged on Monday that he will also use face-to-face talks with the Prime Minister to warn the UK against reneging on the Northern Ireland Brexit deal.

He will warn that the US, a guarantor of the Good Friday Agreement, views the problems surrounding the protocol as an obstacle to a potential UK-US trade deal progressing, according to sources quoted by The Times.

Lord Frost, the Brexit minister, said in an article for the Financial Times on Monday that the Government had "underestimated the effects of the protocol" on moving goods across the Irish Sea between parts of the UK.

Fog of war ... US and Joe Biden a guarantor of the Good Friday Agreement

Every alliance and commitment has it's price and limit ...

Biden Defends Afghan Pullout and Declares an End to Nation-Building | NY Times |

Joe Biden doesn't do "nation building" -- see split red and blue states -- except in foreign military policy for regime change in Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Russia, Yemen and Iran ... for now. Hong Kong and Taiwan are on Joe's radar. Trump failed to buy Greenland, however Joe may find Finland a welcome trophy on the wall of the Oval Office.

Presidents Erdogan and Obama have an uneasy relationship | BBC News - March 2016 |

Spotlight Turkey: A Pivotal Swing State In Nato | Turkish Policy |

From the diaries ...

Emir Al Thani, Sultan Erdogan and HRC Foreign Policy of Revolutions

Navigating the Democracy-Security Dilemma in U.S. Foreign Policy: Lessons from Egypt, India, and Turkey | Carnegie Endowment for International Peace - Nov. 4, 2021 |

As President Joe Biden and his team seek to put the defense of democracy and protection of human rights at the center of U.S. foreign policy, they confront the stubborn fact that the United States maintains cooperative security relations with a wide range of undemocratic or democratically backsliding governments. Powerful security interests, especially countering terrorist threats, maintaining stability in the Middle East, and managing competition with a rising China, underlie many of these partnerships. Such situations frequently give rise to a policy dilemma: confronting partner governments over their political shortcomings risks triggering hostility that would jeopardize the security benefits that such governments provide to Washington. Yet giving them a free pass on democracy and rights issues undercuts the credibility of U.S. appeals to values, bolstering the damaging perception that America only pushes for democracy against its adversaries or in strategically irrelevant countries.

Already in the first year of Biden's presidency, such tensions have emerged in relations with countries as diverse as Egypt, Hungary, India, the Philippines, Poland, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. While the Biden administration has publicly and privately raised democracy and rights issues with various security partners, its cautious approach toward some of them has started to attract criticism from those who feel that near-term security interests have been too strongly prioritized compared to democracy and human rights concerns.

This paper looks in depth at the democracy-security dilemma with a view to helping U.S. policymakers deal with it more systematically and effectively. Case studies of U.S. policy toward Egypt, India, and Turkey over the past twenty years highlight the complexity of the democracy-security dilemma. In Egypt, U.S. concerns with the country's authoritarian politics have surfaced periodically over the years yet struggled to find a meaningful place in a relationship dominated by deeply rooted security cooperation, including extensive U.S. security assistance. In India, a strong U.S. push, warmly welcomed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi's government, to further strengthen the U.S. -Indian security partnership has unfolded alongside a distinctly illiberal turn in Indian politics. By contrast, democratic decline in Turkey has coincided with--and contributed to--a major deterioration in Ankara's relations with Washington, including significant divergence on a range of foreign policy issues.

There are no magic solutions to the democracy-security dilemma. But careful assessments of the security and political issues at stake can help U.S. policymakers avoid ad hoc approaches and diminish the long-standing tendency to back down reflexively on democracy and rights when clashing interests arise.

COP26 - Global Warming

If nations don't settle their scores imminently, climate change will settle scores with humanity the soonest. The 21st American Century will go down in history as oblivion of mankind ...

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: A Commentary | By Daniel Bodansky - 1993 |

Each year, mankind injects approximately six billion tons of carbon into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels,' as well as a substantial (although still uncertain) amount from deforestation. Since the advent of the industrial revolution, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide have risen by more than twenty-five percent, from 280 to more than 350 parts per million (ppm).' Scientists estimate that if current patterns of emissions continue unchecked, the increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide, together with parallel increases in other trace gases such as methane and nitrous oxide, will cause an average global warming in the range of 0.2 to 0.50 C per decade, or 2 to 50 C (3.6 to 90 F) by the end of the next century.

....
To many, the Convention was a disappointment. Despite early hopes that
it would seek to stabilize or even reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by
developed countries, the Convention contains only the vaguest of commitments
regarding stabilization and no commitment at all on reductions. It fails to
include innovative proposals to establish a financial and technology clearing-
house or an insurance fund, or to use market mechanisms such as tradeable
emissions rights. Furthermore, it not only contains significant qualifications on the obligations of developing cuntries, but gives special consideration
to the situation of fossil-fuel producing states."

Nevertheless, given the complexity both of the negotiations, which involved more than 140 states with very different interests and ideologies, and of the causes, effects, and policy implications of global warming, reaching agreement at all in such a limited period of time was a considerable achievement. In fact, the final text is significantly more substantive than either the bare-bones convention advocated by some delegations or previous framework conventions dealing with transboundary air pollution and depletion of the ozone layer.

The geopolitics of energy: out with the old, in with the new | Oxford Forum |

A thread running through this Forum is a warning against intellectual complacency. One key theme is that assumptions about the future geopolitical outlook of countries, regions, and trade relationships will hardly be guided by history, given the size and scope of the transformation. Demand-side policy and capital allocation shifts will create both challenges and opportunities for fossil fuel incumbents--a stark reminder that while some regions are moving more slowly, no region is standing still as the energy transition gathers pace. Similarly, identifying winners and losers is not as clear-cut as it seems, especially in light of concerns that the US is losing out in the race with the EU and China. The third theme serves as a stark reminder that the pathways to net zero will be neither linear nor uniform, especially in light of the falling costs of technologies. But the race for technological leadership and for control of the supply chains of new materials will become a key factor in the geopolitics of new energies.

Framing the energy transition and its geopolitical implications

In the opening article, Indra Overland highlights the analytical challenges when predicting the consequences of the energy transition based on our assumptions about the past. He presents six areas where interpretations of past and current issues are decisive for thinking about the winners and losers of the energy transition. First, do oil and gas lead to geopolitical competition? Second, does the US contribute to stability in the Middle East? Does Russia use energy as a weapon? Next, is natural resource endowment a curse? Do developed countries exploit developing countries and their natural resources? And finally, do trade and interdependence promote peace? Given the diverging views on how these factors shape the `old' geopolitics, there are considerable uncertainties about their consequences for `new' geopolitical arrangements, complicating scenario-building and prediction studies. Overland argues that more attention needs to be paid to how interpretations of the past and the present shape our predictions of the future, both regarding the geopolitics of the energy transition and beyond.

The planet is heating up -- and so are global geopolitics

The right war for the U.S. and China | Japan Times - Sept. 28, 2021 |

An arms race is not the answer: The two superpowers need to fight climate change together.

With less than two months until the crucial United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP26) in Glasgow, the United States and China must commit to cooperate on the existential challenge global warming represents. But bilateral relations remain burdened by mistrust, antagonism and even warmongering.

Technically, the U.S. and China are both willing to cooperate on climate change. But China wants to do so only in a broader context of constructive engagement. The U.S., by contrast, wants "climate cooperation a la carte," so that it can maintain a policy of containment and competition in virtually every other arena.

This mentality was on display last week, with the announcement of the so-called AUKUS security alliance. The U.S. and the United Kingdom have now agreed to share advanced -- and highly sensitive -- technology with Australia and to supply it with nuclear-powered submarines. The goal of the alliance, according to U.S. President Joe Biden, is to advance the "imperative of ensuring peace and stability in the Indo-Pacific over the long term."

That is not how China sees it. As Foreign Ministry spokesperson Zhao Lijian put it, the AUKUS pact reflects a "zero-sum-game mentality" and "seriously damages regional peace and stability, intensifies the arms race and undermines the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons."

The European Union is pursuing a far more constructive model of Western engagement in the Indo-Pacific. Just a day after the AUKUS announcement, the European Commission announced its EU Strategy for Cooperation in the Indo-Pacific, which emphasizes "engagement with the region to build partnerships that reinforce the rules-based international order, address global challenges and lay the foundations for a rapid, just and sustainable economic recovery that creates long-term prosperity."

In 2012 policy brief reflecting optimism ... soon proved to be a dud ... misconception of the powers of Pentagon and Military Industrial Complex build on lobbyists interned in U.S. Congress offices.

The Green Arms Race: Reorienting the Discussions on Climate Change, Energy Policy, and National Security | Harvard - 2012 |

In the midst of a shifting international order, the U.S. Department of Defense stands uniquely positioned to intensify global innovation in the energy arena. This Article describes the mechanics by which DoD can ignite a mutually-beneficial green energy "arms race." In this role, the military reprises a historical function of driving technological advancement, combining its operational requirements and legislative prerogatives to grow investment and create consistent demand.

The Article also discusses the legal and regulatory regimes that may be enlisted and exported through transgovernmental networks to spread the benefits of the use of alternative fuels and increased energy efficiency, the potential impact of the Green Arms Race on global climate change efforts, and the limits on the impact of greening the force in bringing about positive change. The Green Arms Race has the potential to succeed where existing international and unilateral efforts to encourage efficient energy innovation and address climate change have failed.

Competition between great powers and a looming strategic arms race in the Asia-Pacific | Springer - June 2021 |

Dr. Doom in the Pentagon explaining the day after scenario ...

Greed to Green: Solving Climate Change and Remaking the Economy | Charles Derber - 2010 |. A book review

    This book shows how we can solve the climate change crisis, which is the greatest threat humanity has faced. Charles Derber, a prominent sociologist and political economist, shows that global warming is a symptom of deep pathologies in global capitalism. In conversational and passionate writing, Derber shows that climate change is capitalism's time bomb, certain to explode unless we rapidly transform our economy and create a new green American Dream Derber shows there is hope in the financial meltdown and Great Recession we are now suffering. The economic crisis has raised deep questions about Wall Street and the US capitalist model.

[Update-1] The Papers: A Road to Hell

Coal Is Out At COP26 – Except For Countries Where It’s Still In! | Forbes |

The recent climate conference COP26 reached for an agreement on coal, the dirtiest of the main fossil fuels. Over 40 countries agreed to phase out coal in richer countries by 2040 and in poorer countries by 2050.

On the final day, words to phase out “unabated coal power and inefficient fossil fuel subsidies” were still in the final conference recommendations. Unabated coal means coal produced without using carbon capture and storage as a net-zero escape hatch.

Private entities also signed on, and some major banks said they would end financing for the coal industry. Notable by their absence are the US, China, India and Australia.

How decades of disinformation about fossil fuels halted U.S. climate policy | NPR |

Some of America’s most prominent companies, including Apple, Amazon, Microsoft and Disney, are backing business groups that are fighting landmark climate legislation, despite their own promises to combat the climate crisis, a new analysis has found.

Opposition from Sen. Joe Manchin, a Democrat from West Virginia, a coal and natural gas state, has likely sounded a death knell for the Biden administration's ambitious plan of $3.5tn to cut emissions that drive climate change …

END OF UPDATE

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by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 04:38:41 PM EST
by Oui on Sat Nov 13th, 2021 at 09:21:08 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 01:32:44 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Example of not understanding the scale of the problem
by asdf on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 05:27:49 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 04:43:28 PM EST
by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 04:45:25 PM EST
The 21st American Century will go down in history as oblivion of mankind ...

Who is going to write this history?

by gk (gk (gk quattro due due sette @gmail.com)) on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 05:07:52 PM EST
Last I read, they will be the "survivors" of the mass extinction: wut
by Cat on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 06:58:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Frank Schnittger (mail Frankschnittger at hot male dotty communists) on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 07:06:50 PM EST
[ Parent ]
As long as they don't forget the servants...

by Bernard on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 12:02:58 PM EST
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<script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 09:16:57 PM EST
by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 09:17:27 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Climate change forces Himalayan herders to search for pasture

The Himalayan Gaddi community of pastoralists has long lived from the land. But with rising temperatures pushing them higher up into mountains in search of grazing pastures, their way of life is under threat.

It is fall in the Dhaulagiri range in the far north of India. Pine tree forests abound in this remote stretch of the Himalayas , where serpentine roads cling to steep mountainsides.

But something isn't right in the picturesque hamlet of Kandral, inhabited by the semi-nomadic Gaddi community. The air should be filled with bleating and the sound of bells. Instead, there is silence.

Ranjit Singh and four other shepherds have left their flocks with relatives high up in the mountains so they can come down to celebrate the annual festival of Dham.

In the past, they would have brought their animals with them and stayed for longer before descending to the foothills in the winter.

"This used to be a time when our livestock would stay with us and eat the grass we've collected for them while we shear wool and sell it," says Singh. But the  changing climate  in this part of the mid-Himalayas has undone the pattern of his existence.

The western Himalaya

by Oui on Fri Nov 12th, 2021 at 10:09:46 PM EST
Anyone who thinks the nuclear industry is not going to come along to "save" the Earth is living in a dream.
by asdf on Sat Nov 13th, 2021 at 04:46:24 PM EST
by Oui on Sat Nov 13th, 2021 at 07:42:27 PM EST
by Oui on Sat Nov 13th, 2021 at 09:23:43 PM EST

by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 01:28:58 PM EST

Glasgow climate pact: leaders welcome Cop26 deal despite coal compromise

See coal and fossil fuel update in diary above ...

by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 01:31:38 PM EST
by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 01:33:49 PM EST
by Oui on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 06:34:05 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 01:34:38 PM EST
COP26: World leaders fail to honor climate pledge

The UN climate summit has been slammed as a failure after India and China weakened language on phasing out fossil fuels and historical polluters refused to accept liability for damage caused by extreme weather.

....
The result of that semantic spat -- watered down to levels well below what scientists say is needed to halt global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial temperatures -- was among the hardest-fought outcomes of two weeks of international negotiations to stop the planet hurtling closer towards catastrophic changes in the climate.

Campaigners and analysts slammed the Glasgow Climate Pact for failing to make rich polluters pay reparations for losses and damages brought about by extreme weather events that climate change has turbocharged.

Rich countries now plan to pay poorer ones $100 billion a year to green their economies and adapt to the effects of climate change by 2023, despite having promised and failed to do so by 2020.

With international studies showing the costs of climate change running into the trillions, the sum of money is not enough to cover the costs of the transition and includes loans for which they will have to pay interest.

'The Australian way': how Morrison trashed brand Australia at COP26

by Oui on Sun Nov 14th, 2021 at 09:32:12 PM EST
Business back as usual post-pandemic.

Dubai Airshow 2021: aviation industry's comeback journey begins here

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 06:40:33 AM EST
by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 06:47:28 AM EST
Royal Dutch Shell to be fully incorporated in London ... need to avoid EU rules, legislation and Climate regulation.

Notice of General Meeting - Shell seeks Shareholder approval to change articles to implement a simplified structure

The Board of Royal Dutch Shell plc (Shell) today announced a proposal to simplify the company's share structure to increase the speed and flexibility of capital and portfolio actions. The simplification is designed to strengthen Shell's competitiveness and accelerate both shareholder distributions and the delivery of its strategy to become a net-zero emissions business.

Shell's Chair, Sir Andrew Mackenzie, said: "At a time of unprecedented change for the industry, it's even more important that we have an increased ability to accelerate the transition to a lower-carbon global energy system. A simpler structure will enable Shell to speed up the delivery of its Powering Progress strategy, while creating value for our shareholders, customers and wider society."

Under the proposal announced today, Shell intends to change its share structure to establish a single line of shares, which is simpler for investors to understand and value. The company will also align its tax residence with its country of incorporation in the UK.

Shell has been incorporated in the UK with Dutch tax residence and a dual share structure since the 2005 unification of Koninklijke Nederlandsche Petroleum Maatschappij and The Shell Transport and Trading Company under a single parent company. It was not envisaged at the time of unification that the current A/B share structure would be permanent.

So the Dutch won't need to join UK and US in sending military into Iraq and Libya? Dutch Shell is a partner in Iranian oil ... an alert to Tehran.

Shell: Netherlands court orders oil giant to cut emissions | BBC News - May 28, 2021 |

Dutch Justice: Royal Dutch Shell must reduce CO2 emissions

The Hague District Court has ordered Royal Dutch Shell (RDS) to reduce the CO2 emissions of the Shell group by net 45% in 2030, compared to 2019 levels, through the Shell group's corporate policy.

Shell confirms decision to appeal court ruling in Netherlands climate case

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 08:21:54 AM EST

Relevance of Dutch tax Haven imperium is crumbling ...

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 08:25:56 AM EST
[ Parent ]

Translation:

Minister Blok (Economy) visited the @Shell_Nederland refinery in Pernis in Rotterdam Europort. There he was updated about the strategy to make the refinery more sustainable.

It is important and interesting to see with your own eyes what Shell is doing and still needs to do to become more sustainable.

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 08:32:01 AM EST
[ Parent ]
The termination of Groningen gas production--background and next steps

SIGNIFICANT DISCOVERY

The supergiant Groningen field (also known as the Slochteren field) was found in 1959 by the Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM), a 50/50 partnership between Shell and Esso. That the Slochteren-1 well found gas rather than oil was initially a disappointment since, at the time, the Dutch domestic gas market was nearly saturated with so-called town gas, which, before the development of natural gas, was manufactured from coal and used for fuel and lighting. The Dutch state directly controlled the gas distribution network in 8 of the 11 Dutch provinces through the staatsgasbedrijf (state gas company) and also effectively controlled the gas distribution network in the province of South Limburg through its ownership of the staatsmijnen (state mines or state collieries).

The earliest publicly announced reserve estimate of this gas discovery was approximately 60 billion cubic meters (bcm), but this soon proved to be a conservative figure. The Nota de Pous (a policy document referring to then-minister of economic affairs Jan-Willem de Pous) mentioned proven reserves of 150 bcm with a "possible reserves" figure of 400 bcm. Current estimates of GIIP (gas initially in place) are near 2,900 bcm, of which about 2,070 bcm had been produced by 2017.

With the gas fields in Groningen shut down due to significant earth tremor damage to homes and business, with Shell leaving Holland, a long history of fossil fuel exploitation will end.

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 08:48:37 AM EST
[ Parent ]

As I live a stone's throw away from Shell HQ, my neighborhood and the city of The Hague will be economically effected by losing part of it's largest employer. Ease on the housing market will be welcomed.

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 11:13:39 AM EST
For the last four years, the Shell HQ building has been shut down due to complete renovation 😉

Translation:
You suddenly have to pay profit tax, you are convicted for climate and oil pollution (Niger delta), you do not get your promised tax benefit on dividend. What do you do then as a right-minded, profit-hungry, irresponsible multinational? Then you run away.

by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 11:21:24 AM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 11:24:52 AM EST
[ Parent ]

Shell's plan to move HQ to London gets Dutch backlash

With a market valuation of more than £125bn, Shell's move to pick Britain as its sole home is seen in Westminster as a post-Brexit coup after it emerged earlier this year that Amsterdam had overtaken London as Europe's largest share trading centre, a largely symbolic blow.

....
The move to simplify the share structure comes after the US hedge fund Third Point, led by the Wall Street investor Daniel Loeb, took a stake in the company and started pushing for changes, including a potential breakup. Third Point had accused Shell of having "an incoherent, conflicting set of strategies attempting to appease multiple interests but satisfying none".

by Oui on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 04:37:33 AM EST
[ Parent ]
Not about taxes, the advantage of London is legislation and regulation of a fossil fuel nation and leaving EU Courts and laws behind. Shell Pernis will abide by the industrial regulations of emissions etc. ... Shell sustainable energy will still reap subsidies for EU green energy projects and production NortH2.

About avoiding taxes in Europe's best tax haven ... next to the Islands!

How the Dutch tax authority gave Shell's foreign shareholders a gift of more than 7 billion euros

If the recent upheaval about the dividend tax in the Netherlands has taught us anything, it's that Royal Dutch Shell and Unilever shareholders are not keen on paying Dutch dividend tax. The Dutch government recently released twelve memos concerning the dividend tax which were authored by civil servants at the Dutch Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Economic Affairs which extensively mention the position of both companies and their interests in the debate over whether to abolish the dividend tax.

Dutch taxpayers may have missed out on €27bn in dividend taxes: FTM | Oct. 22, 2021 |

Shell stockholders caught with their greedy hands in The Hague cookie jar in care of Mark Rutte?

by Oui on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 10:15:21 AM EST
[ Parent ]
India undercutting the coal pledge and then having to shut down its capitol due to massive air pollution is an interesting situation.
by asdf on Mon Nov 15th, 2021 at 04:28:36 PM EST
by Oui on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 06:46:17 PM EST
by Oui on Tue Nov 16th, 2021 at 06:48:24 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Denmark accuses UK of breaking Brexit fishing deal over trawling ban | The Guardian |

Denmark has accused the UK of breaching the post-Brexit fisheries deal over plans to ban destructive bottom trawling in a North Sea conservation zone.

The UK announced in February that it wanted to ban bottom trawling at the Dogger Bank conservation zone in the North Sea, a move hailed by environmentalists hopeful of seeing a resurgence of halibut, sharks and skate in the once marine life rich sandbank.

In an interview with the Guardian, Denmark's fisheries minister, Rasmus Prehn, said such plans were not in line with the post-Brexit deal.

"The Brexit agreement ensures full access [for EU vessels] to fish in UK waters until 2026. And therefore, of course, it is a very big problem for us if the British government is going to change that. We find that unacceptable and it's a breach of our agreement."

Dogger Bank, a large shallow sandbank about 90 miles north-east of the Humber estuary, has been fished by Danish boats for centuries and is among the country's most important fishing grounds, according to the Danish government.

Revive our Seas: The case for stronger regulation of
sandeel fisheries in UK waters

by Oui on Wed Nov 17th, 2021 at 08:28:51 PM EST
Establishment of the Dogger Bank wind farm, which has the potential to create 900 new jobs in Yorkshire and supply about 2.5 per cent of the country's electricity, is yet to secure final investment and will also need to secure backing under the  government's renewable energy subsidy system. [Source: NFFO - Feb. 2015]

by Oui on Wed Nov 17th, 2021 at 08:29:34 PM EST
[ Parent ]
What is the real deal with fisheries, sustainability and Dogger Bank??

by Oui on Wed Nov 17th, 2021 at 08:31:44 PM EST
[ Parent ]


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