Tue Apr 27th, 2021 at 01:13:54 PM EST
Crimean Khanate and Tatarstan - Golden Hordes
An Cultural Introduction to Russia's Tatar People
The ancestors of the Kazan Tatars are the people of the Mongol khanates that once ruled across parts of central Asia, Russia and eastern Europe. In the 13th century, the mighty Mongol conqueror, Genghis Khan, pulled in many of the region's Turkic nomads into this army. This was the beginning of Tatar culture and people, who were then aligned with the Golden Horde, the successor khanate. Native to Crimea, the Crimean Tatars are the other major group of ethnic Tatars.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Russia and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around the Volga River.
In the 16th century, the Wild Steppes in Russia were exposed to the Tatars. During the wars, Crimean Tatars (supported by the Turkish army) invaded central Russia, devastated Ryazan, and burned Moscow. However, the next year the Tatars were defeated in the Battle of Molodi. Despite the defeat, the Tatar raids continued. As a result, the Crimean Khanate was invaded several times, conquered in the late 18th century. The Tatars eventually lost their influence in the regions.
When America fought for independence from British colonialism and George Washington became its first president ...
To end the raids by Islamic hordes of Tatars ...
Russian Empire annexed the Crimean Khanate
The Crimean Khanate was a Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
So far as the Russians were concerned, the most important feature of the khanate was the latter's dependence on raiding Muscovite lands for economic benefit. Crimean Tatars frequently "harvested the steppe" and brought Russian, Ukrainian, and Polish peasants to Crimea for sale. Slave markets operated in Kefe and Gozleve, where merchants from the Ottoman Empire, Iran, and Egypt purchased Slavic slaves for export. Several raids reached as far as Moscow itself. Slave market tax records indicate that more than a million were sold in Crimea in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
In 1783, violating the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (which had guaranteed non-interference of both Russia and the Ottoman Empire in the affairs of the Crimean Khanate), the Russian Empire annexed the khanate. Among the European powers, only France came out with an open protest against this act, due to the longstanding Franco-Ottoman alliance.
French Emperor Napoleon expeditionary force to invade Russia
Moscow was occupied on 14 September 1812 by French Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte's Grande Armée during the Napoleonic Wars. It marked the summit of the French invasion of Russia. During the occupation, the city was devastated by fire and looted.
The invasion lasted six months, and the Grande Armée lost more than 300,000 men. Russia lost more than 200,000. A single battle (the Battle of Borodino) resulted in more than 70,000 casualties in one day. The invasion of Russia effectively halted Napoleon's march across Europe, and resulted in his first exile, to the Mediterranean island of Elba.
German Siege In WWI, the Flu Pandemic and Russian Revolt
The Central Powers, also Central Empires, was one of the two main coalitions that fought World War I (1914-18). It consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria and their colonies; hence it is also known as the Quadruple Alliance.
The Operation Faustschlag ("Operation Fist Punch"), also known as the Eleven Days' War, was a Central Powers offensive in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
Russian forces were unable to put up any serious resistance due to the turmoil of the Russian Revolution and subsequent Russian Civil War. The armies of the Central Powers therefore captured huge territories in the Baltics, Belarus, and Ukraine, forcing the Bolshevik government of Russia to sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of 65,000 km2 (25,000 sq mi) of territory and 7 million people. It also required Germany to give up the gains made via the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and grant independence to the protectorates that had been established.
Who needs enemies when you've got Stalin?
The 1921-1922 famine in Tatarstan was a period of mass starvation and drought that took place in the Tatar ASSR as a result of war communism policy, in which 500,000 to 2,000,000 peasants died. The event was part of the greater Russian famine of 1921-22 that affected other parts of the USSR, in which up 5,000,000 people died in total. According to Roman Serbyn, a professor of Russian and East European history, the Tatarstan famine was the first man-made famine in the Soviet Union and systematically targeted ethnic minorities such as Volga Tatars and Volga Germans.
Ukraine's Holodomor of 1933 and the Maidan Revolution
Tatarstan: the restoration of history, religion and national feeling
The majority of the population of Tatarstan are Sunni Muslims. Maintaining peace in the republic and avoiding the growth of radical Islam, which could lead to an armed insurgency similar to the one in North Caucasus, is a top government priority.
It is statements of this kind (on his website in Russian) which prompt some of the Republic's newspapers to ask the question `Why is Shaimiev restoring Bolgar?' For many, his answer `I'm doing it for my soul' may simply not do. Another timely question is `why now?' After all, Tatarstan has already had over twenty years of prosperity based on oil and gas revenues. Could Shaimiev, loudest defender of generous autonomy for Tatarstan, be sending a message to those who desire to unravel what remains of it?
Tatarstan Rises as Phoenix from its Ashes
BTW .. the GDP per capita of Tataristan is greater than the European Ukraine.
From the diaries ...
The Impossible Dream Erdogan by ggorraiz @EuroTrib on Aug 8th, 2010
Clinton's Embrace of Erdogan, Muslim Brotherhood and Chaos
In summer 2014 Hillary called Obama's policy on the Syrian civil war a "failure."