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Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang

by Oui Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 02:42:47 PM EST

Does remind me of the US and NATO allies designating Islamist fighters in Chechnya as "Freedom Fighters" in the civil war against the Russian Republic after 1990. As a result, EU countries have accepted up to 100,000 Chechen refugees or asylum seekers. More later.

The Russian government under Yeltsin and later Putin destroyed much of Grozny to root out terror of separatism and defeat the Sunni Jihadists from across the Islamic world. Not the Shia forces of Iran, but the Sunni fighters trained in Afghanistan and elsewhere by Western allies under leadership of the CIA and US Armed Forces.


China's Relations with Central Asian States and Problems with Terrorism - 2001/2002

This report provides an overview of the Muslim separatist movement in China's north-western Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China's attempts to stifle activities which it considers terrorism, and implications for U.S. policy. Some analysts suggest that the U.S.-led campaign against terrorism may make it difficult to pressure the Chinese government on human rights and religious freedoms, particularly as they relate to Uighur Muslims in Xinjiang.

From my previous diary ...

Thwarting Kremlin Attacks by Tatars, French and Germans

 

The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Inner Asian khanate of Oirat Mongolorigin. At its greatest extent, it covered an area from southern Siberia in the north to present-day Kyrgyzstan in the south, and from the Great Wall of China in the east to present-day Kazakhstan in the west. The core of the Dzungar Khanate is today part of northern Xinjiang, also called Dzungaria.

Talking Past Each Other: Chinese and Western Discourses on Ethnic Conflict - Feng Yuan Ji

On the afternoon of Sunday 5 July 2009 a Uighur mob in the Xinjiang capital of Urumqi went on the rampage, bashing and killing Han Chinese and destroying property well into the night.  The police eventually contained the riot, and they also brought Han counter-attacks under control.  In the weeks after the riot, some of those who had been severely injured died, and by 4 August the death toll stood at 197.  

In both China and the West there was widespread agreement on these basic facts.  However, leaders and news outlets in both China and the West interpreted the facts very differently, with both sides embedding them in discourses that revealed long-standing differences in values, perspectives and strategic interests. In this paper I will analyse and explain these contrasting discourses, outlining their purposes, linking them to their contexts, and discussing their relationship to the views of ordinary people.

Chinese police hunt for two Xinjiang men after deadly Tiananmen car crash

Chinese police are hunting for two or more men from the troubled region of Xinjiang amid growing suspicion that a fatal car crash and explosion in Tiananmen Square was a suicide attack.

The blaze happened metres from the giant portrait of Mao Zedong hanging at the main entrance to the Forbidden City, in the heart of Beijing - one of the most sensitive and tightly guarded spots in the Chinese capital.

"It was no accident. The SUV vehicle knocked down barricades and rammed into pedestrians. The three men had no plans to flee from the scene," an unnamed source told Reuters.

The news agency said its sources also indicated that the vehicle's occupants had lit a flammable substance and that the trio were suspected to be from Xinjiang, although police had not identified them. Officials have yet to comment publicly on whether they believe the crash was deliberate.

Two tourists and the SUV's three occupants died and 38 other people were injured when the vehicle ploughed into the crowd and exploded into flames.

China police seek eight in connection with Tiananmen car crash | CNBC - June 2013 |

US calls Kunming attack 'act of terrorism' amid accusations of bias in Western media reporting | SCMP - March 4, 2014 |

A spokeswoman for the US State Department has acknowledged that the Kunming attack was an act of terrorism after China's largest journalist association condemned Western media for "harbouring ulterior motives" when reporting last Saturday's massacre that left 29 dead.

When asked to comment by a Hong Kong-based Phoenix TV reporter at a regular news briefing, Jen Psaki acknowledged that "the attack appeared to be an act of terrorism" because of a lack of "any other independent information".

But she eventually gave in after being repeatedly asked to respond. "So we are calling this an act of terrorism," she was quoted as saying.

Also the government-backed All-China Journalists Association (ACJA), the country's most authoritative journalist organisation, published a statement on its website stating "Some Western media ignored the most fundamental rule of journalism, displaying ambiguous attitudes and ulterior motives."

The statement named television network CNN, and the Associated Press news agency, both US-based media organisations, claiming that in reports of the Kunming attack quotation marks were placed around words such as "terrorism" and "assailants" was used rather than "terrorists".

Kunming attack 'act of terrorism'

The attackers pulled out long-bladed knives and stabbed and slashed passengers at random. The assailants killed 31 civilians and injured more than 140 people. Four assailants were shot to death by police on the spot and one injured perpetrator was captured. Police announced 2 days later that the six-man, two-woman group had been neutralized after the arrest of three remaining suspects.

China's Anti-Terrorism Policy | INSS - Dec. 2007 | By Yoram Evron - Haifa Univ.  

As with many other countries, China changed its attitude to terror following the attack on the Twin Towers in September 2001. The term "terror" began to be used intensively in its declarations; its diplomatic agenda included international cooperation against terror; and it undertook a variety of related actions on a multilateral, regional, and bilateral level. Since China's principal anti-terror activity targets extremist Islamic organizations, its fight against terror may be a potential area of cooperation with Israel. However, in order to establish fruitful cooperation, Israel must understand that Beijing's concept of terrorism derives from its own set of strategic interests and is not identical to that of other states.

China's Local Terrorism Challenge

The main terrorism threat that China deals with comes from separatist groups belonging to the Muslim Uighur minority, most of whom live in China's western Xinjiang Province. The Uighur, who number nine million, are ethnically, culturally, and historically dis-tinct from the Chinese people. Their origins lie in the Turkish peoples to the west of China, their language is closely related to Turkish languages, their belief is based on Islam, and they practice exclusive customs.

Uighur terror is founded on the group's claim to a separate state (which they call East Turkistan) or at the least, extensive autonomous authority. Xinjiang Province is officially considered an autonomous region in which the Uighur are able to manage their lives according to their customs, study their language at schools, practice their religion and so forth. However this state of affairs is qualified by the regime's claim that Xinjiang has been an integral part of China for two thousand years, and that it will remain so in the future.

Aside from the historical link, Xinjiang Province is highly important to China: it serves as a strategic buffer separating China from its northwestern and western neighbors (Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India), it has high concentrations of natural resources (mainly oil and gas), and it contains strategic military facilities.

Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China | Asian Review - 2008 | By Elizabeth Van Wie Davis

Uyghur Muslim violence in Xinjiang, China, has two justifications--ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang and are overwhelmingly Muslim. This combination of ethnicity and religion also involves the movement of religious and political ideologies, weapons, and people.

There is no single Uyghur agenda. Groups that use violence desire a separate Uyghur state. While some Uyghurs want a separate state, others want to maintain cultural distinction within an autonomous relationship with China, and others are integrating into the Chinese system.

Overview

  • The April 1990 armed uprising in Baren marked an increase in Uyghur Muslim violence in Xinjiang, China. Two justifications--ethnic separatism and religious rhetoric--are given. The Uyghurs, who reside throughout the immediate region, are the largest Turkic ethnic group living in Xinjiang as well as being overwhelmingly Muslim. This combination of ethnicity and religion also involves the movement of religious and political ideologies, weapons, and people.
  • The desired outcome by groups that use violence is, broadly speaking, a separate Uyghur state, called either Uyghuristan or Eastern Turkistan, which lays claim to a large part of China. While some Uyghurs want a separate state, others want to maintain cultural distinction within an autonomous relationship with China, and others are integrating into the Chinese system. There is no single Uyghur agenda.
  • The violent outbreaks in Xinjiang occur sporadically, and the groups that claim responsibility are frequently splintering, merging, and collapsing. Some of the Uyghur groups make claims that are difficult to substantiate. Nonetheless, the Uyghur grievances against the Chinese government have old roots. Some of the newer elements include Turkey's unofficial support and Muslim funding and training from abroad.
  • The heavy-handedness of the multiple "strike hard" campaigns by the central Chinese government in Xinjiang simultaneously tamps down violence in the short- run but fuels a sense of injustice and mistrust among the Uyghurs in the long-run. Beginning in 1996, regular "strike hard" campaigns were used to fight crime and threats to order by mobilizing police, but are used in this decade to deal increasingly with "separatism, extremism and terrorism." A heavy police presence is a constant in Xinjiang.
  • U.S. policy on this issue is constrained. Not only does the US need to work with China on issues of geostrategic importance, but also the Uyghurs who use violence have formed limited associations with groups that are categorized as terrorist organizations. The best option for the United States is to continue to encourage China to use the rule of law and to respect human rights.

China state Uyghurs unrest similar to Russia and the Republic in Chechnya in the 1990s

A Chechnya in the making | The Economist - Aug. 2014 |

An iron fist in Xinjiang is fuelling an insurrection. China's leadership must switch tactics

The Uyghurs have never been particularly comfortable in China. Xinjiang, the region where these Turkic Muslims once formed the vast majority, came unwillingly into the Chinese empire. Rebels in parts of it even set up independent republics; a short-lived one was snuffed out by the Communist Party in 1949. Since then the regime in Beijing, 1,000 miles (1,600km) to the east, has sought to keep Xinjiang quiet. The policy is not working. The presidency of Xi Jinping risks sinking into a quagmire of ethnic strife. This could be China's Chechnya.

Over the past few decades the party has used several tactics to assert control. First it encouraged massive migration of Han Chinese into Xinjiang from other parts of China. Later it poured money into infrastructure and beefing up industry; the jobs thus created have gone overwhelmingly to Hans, who now make up more than 40% of the province's 22m people. In tandem the party has adopted a hard line towards the merest hint of dissatisfaction on the part of the Uighurs.

Analysis of Israel's Anti-terrorism Strategy and Countermeasures
Enlightenment from China's Xinjiang Anti-terrorism

----From the perspective of the "National Security Committee" decision-making mechanism
Lu Peng Cao Xuefei
(China Criminal Police Academy, Shenyang, Liaoning 110035)

Abstract: Israel is one of the countries facing the most serious threat of terrorism in the world today. It is gradually exploring in the long-term anti-terrorism struggle.

A set of counter-terrorism strategies that are in line with Israel's national conditions and safeguard Israel's national security interests. From strategic decision-making, intelligence information, anti-terrorism execution

Conduct a comprehensive analysis on the four dimensions of power, public opinion and propaganda, explore the successful experience of Israel's counter-terrorism strategy, and use this as a reference. In the comparative analysis

The future prospects and direction of China's Xinjiang counter-terrorism after the establishment of the National Security Council.

Keywords: Israel's Anti-terrorism Strategy  - Xinjiang National Security Committee for Anti-terrorism - Chinese Library Classification Number : D815

We call them our "Freedom Fighters" as they fight our proxy wars against the former Soviet Union.

Foreign Fighters with IS - An European Perspective | ICCT - Dec. 2015 |

    "We cannot lose this war because it is fundamentally a war of civilization. It is our society, our civilization that we are defending." - French Prime Minister Manuel Valls (2015).

West European citizens and residents, often with a second generation immigration background, have, in the recent past, become foreign fighters (FFs) in at least nine countries -Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Chechnya, in Yemen, Somalia, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Mali and, since 2011, in Syria and Iraq. They are part of a stream of mainly Salafist jihadist foreign fighters that has grown since the early 1980s [See the Brzezinski doctrine, Saudi funds, OBL and Soviet-Afghan War], with some of them moving from one jihad war theatre to the next.

Foreign fighters are not a new phenomenon. However, the present stream of foreign jihadist fighters to the Levant is unprecedented -unless one wants to go back to the crusades some 900 years ago. Up to at least August 2015, between 850 and 1,250 new jihadist volunteers have been travelling to Syria and Iraq from abroad month after month. In the twelve months up to late September 2015, the number of foreign fighters nearly doubled, according to the US Assistant Attorney General, John P. Carlin.

Before the Arab Spring erupted in 2011, some 30,000 Muslim foreign fighters had already taken part in eighteen different conflicts, ranging from Bosnia to Kashmir and the Philippines. Since 2011, more than 25,000 foreign recruits from more than one hundred countries (including, for instance, countries as far away as Argentina, Honduras, Cambodia and South Korea have been drawn into the conflict in Syria and Iraq alone, notwithstanding the absence of ethnic, cultural or language links with many of them.

France has 5000 Chechens in its country who potentially are radicalized, as are many tens of thousands from the diverse MENA countries.

French Authorities Must Ensure Safety of Chechen Man Wrongfully Deported to Russia | CRD - April 2021 |

 

Refugees from the Russian Federation remain one of the largest groups of refugees in Europe. The EU estimates there are currently 100,000 refugees from Chechnya outside Russia, mainly in EU Member States.

Guidelines on the Treatment of Chechen Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Europe | ECRE - June 2011 |  

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In the US the anti-China propaganda campaign using Uyghurs as the weapon is run by the The Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation a "non-profit anti-communist organization in the United States, authorized by a unanimous Act of Congress in 1993 for the purpose of educating Americans about the ideology, history and legacy of communism."  As far as I can tell the organization is run by the usual Right Wing hacks, bigots, and fascists intent on starting another Cold War.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 03:37:04 PM EST
It's also being touted by the Florida Republican Party to keep the Cuban vote.  

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 03:40:28 PM EST
[ Parent ]
This is China's side of the story.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 03:46:39 PM EST
by Oui on Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 08:15:43 PM EST
by Oui on Fri Apr 30th, 2021 at 09:03:00 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 08:47:08 AM EST
I don't know what is going on.  Somebodies are propagandizing for a Naval War in the South China Sea.

She believed in nothing; only her skepticism kept her from being an atheist. -- Jean-Paul Sartre
by ATinNM on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 03:31:33 PM EST
Until U.S. State Department Mike Pompeo decided they weren't in 2020 ...

The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat; The Uyghurs: Strangers in Their Own Land | Foreign Affairs - Jan/Feb 2011 |

Among the many Uighur organizations that the Chinese government labels as terrorist is one that the U.S. government placed on its own terrorist blacklist after 9/11: the East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM). Some analysts viewed that listing as a grant of U.S. support for Chinese repression in exchange for help in the war on terrorism. The counterterrorism analysts Reed and Raschke review the open-source evidence (much of it from China) that they believe shows ETIM to be a true terrorist force, with an ideology that is both separatist and fundamentalist. They track its changing names, logos, and leaders and locate it in the context of other Uighur militant groups. They make a strong case that although it is small and has not accomplished much, the organization practices terror.

Uighur Diaspora Hails Removal of ETIM From US Terror List | VOA News - Dec. 25, 2020 |

East Turkistan Government-in-Exile | HQ in Washington DC |

by Oui on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 09:05:12 PM EST

In 2018 the US Was at War With Uyghur Terrorists. Now It Claims They Don't Even Exist | Mint Press - May 1, 2021 |

by Oui on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 09:06:30 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 09:09:10 PM EST
[ Parent ]
by Oui on Sat May 1st, 2021 at 09:11:47 PM EST
Except for the America's where dictators used military police to stamp out opposition and deny freedom of speech. Any and all authoritarian states abuses its power: Africa and Asia with the Communist regimes of Soviet Union and China leading. A new Cold War will only reverse the advances made in the last three decades.

The Economist and Human Rights Violations in Brazil During the Military Dictatorship (1964-1985)

Terrorist Profiles -Letter Vice President G.H. Bush in 1988

Fellow Americans,

In February 1986, The Vice President's Task Force on Combatting Terrorism released its public report, which contained a number of policy recommendations. These recommendations became the cornerstone of US counterterrorism policy. One key proposal was to launch a public awareness effort to better inform the American people about the nature of terrorism and the threat it represents to our national security interests and to the freedoms we so deeply cherish.

I strongly favor providing the public such information because it sharpens awareness as to the individual agendas of terrorist groups, the role of nations that support their depredations, and the necessity for tailoring multiple strategies to effectively combat this scourge.

As a result of the findings of my Task Force, we have markedly improved the coordinating machinery that enables the American Government to more rapidly and effectively resolve terrorist crises. We have put in place new procedures to enhance the response capabilities of our intelligence, law enforcement, and security forces. We have spent millions to recruit, train, and equip our personnel engaged in combatting terrorism and to enhance the security of our embassies and overseas military bases.

My Task Force outlined a clear and concise counterterrorism policy -the toughest in the Free World.

First, the United States will be firm with terrorists. We will not make concessions. We will continue to urge other countries not to make concessions. Rewarding terrorists only encourages more terrorism. Second, we will apply pressure to states which sponsor terrorism. We will work with friendly nations to apply diplomatic, economic, political, and, if necessary, military pressure on states which sponsor terrorism. If we find states supplying money, weapons, training, identification documents, travel, or safe haven for terrorists, we will respond. Our aim is to demonstrate to these countries that supporting terrorism is not cost-free.

Third, we will bring terrorists to justice. We will continue to cooperate with friendly nations to identify, track, apprehend, prosecute, and punish terrorists. Our efforts include exchanging intelligence information on terrorists and their movements, developing "watch lists" for use by border police, and tightening extradition treaties. Terrorism is crime, and terrorists must be treated as criminals.

In addition, the United States will help friendly nations resist terrorist pressures through an ambitious program of antiterrorism training which, since 1984, has trained more than 6,000 police officers and security personnel from some 50 nations.

Our policy has been effective. From 1986-1987, the number of anti-US terrorist attacks dropped
25 percent. International terrorist operations in Western Europe over the past 2 years decreased
31 percent, and last year in Latin America dropped 32 percent. Only two international terrorist
skyjackings occurred in 1986 and only one in 1987. Particularly gratifying have been the increasingly
successful prosecutions of international terrorists. Last year alone, there were 30 convictions in 9
different countries - the majority of terrorists received sentences of death, or life imprisonment.

Although progress has been made, terrorism remains a serious threat. In 1987, international terrorists carried out 832 operations, attacking the citizens and property of 84 nations. More than 2,000 persons were wounded. More than 600 died. This was greater than any year since the US Government began keeping records some 20 years ago.

The surge in the level of international terrorist activity worldwide in 1987 and 1988 resulted from a wave of high-casualty bombings in Pakistan carried out by agents of the Afghan intelligence service known as WAD. The WAD is Soviet trained and organized. The terrorist campaign is designed to deter the Government of Pakistan from aiding resistance fighters in Afghanistan. Fully one-third of all deaths and one-half of all injuries in 1987 that resulted worldwide from international terrorist operations were attributable to this campaign of terror - a campaign that left in its wake more than 220 dead and 1,000 wounded. When these numbers are subtracted, the number of incidents in the rest of the world declined by almost 10 percent from the 1986 statistics.

Many other states have adopted terrorism as a tool of foreign policy. Incidents attributable to state sponsorship rose from 70 attacks in 1986 to 189 in 1987, an increase of more than 170 percent. Governments sponsoring terrorism include North Korea, Iran, Libya, Syria, and South Yemen. This past year, only Syria took steps to lessen its support of terrorism by expelling the Abu Nidal Organization from the country.

For many, terrorism represents a cheap and effective way to project power. It is a tactic that enables terrorists to shoot their way onto the world stage and, in effect, hijack the international media. Terrorism, as common street crime, may never be totally eradicated, but we can reduce it to a more tolerable level. In our fight against terrorism we are going to suffer casualties. And, as in any conflict, the innocent suffer. Our aim is to minimize the price the American people and other innocents pay, and assure that those states and groups that resort to terrorism find the cost prohibitive and their actions counterproductive.

The difference between terrorists and freedom fighters is sometimes clouded. Some would say one man's freedom fighter is another man's terrorist. I reject this notion. The philosophical differences are stark and fundamental. It should be clear to all those who read this book that terrorists are criminals who attack our cherished institutions and profane our values.

In seeking to destroy freedom and democracy, terrorists deliberately target noncombatants for their own cynical purposes. They kill and maim defenseless men. women, and children. They murder judges, newspaper reporters, elected officials, government administrators, labor leaders, policemen, priests, and others who defend the values of civilized society. Freedom fighters, in contrast, seek to adhere to international law and civilized standards of conduct. They attack military targets, not defenseless civilians. Noncombatant casualties in this context are an aberration or attributable to the fortunes of war. They are not the result of deliberate policy designed to terrorize the opposition.

The difference between the terrorists and the freedom fighters is as profound as it is obvious. To permit this distinction to become blurred is to play into terrorists' hands.

The American public needs to understand terrorism, what it is and is not, and how the United States Government takes action against the terrorist threat.

Thus by overstaying our invasion and occupation in Afghanistan and Iraq, the United States has become the state actor of terrorism with drone strikes, assassinations killing anywhere from dozens to hundreds of civilians. Even The Netherlands with a small footprint as military might, managed to kill up to 70-80 civilians in a single strike in both Uruzgan, Afghanistan and Mosul and Hawija in Iraq.

Iraqi Civilians Will Die: U.S. Must Get Used to It, Experts Say

The U.S. and Western allies in NATO have become perpetrators of war crimes and it has become a new normal.

by Oui on Sun May 2nd, 2021 at 07:55:52 AM EST
by Oui on Sun May 2nd, 2021 at 08:58:14 PM EST


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