Fri Jan 14th, 2022 at 09:53:11 PM EST
British PM David Cameron and French president Hollande in Libya ... seeking a military victory to mark their legacy.
David Cameron's Libyan war: why the PM felt Gaddafi had to be stopped | The Guardian - Oct. 2, 2011 |
At one point the prime minister had to be told that there was no legal basis to bomb the main oil refinery supplying Tripoli because the UN security council resolution, authorising the military action, specified that "all necessary measures" could only be taken to protect civilians. "The prime minister was always the biggest hawk in the NSC," says one minister who attended the meetings. "He was always the person who was pushing and saying 'how can we get things moving in this way?'"
There amazons in Washington and R2P policy to overthrow the Libyan government.
Hillary Clinton - Susan Rice - Samantha Power - Amazon warriors R2P policy executing regime change
Obama's Women Advisers Pushed War Against Libya | The Nation - March 19, 2011 |
Sarkozy hopes Libya can boost France's reputation - as well as his own | The Guardian - Sept. 1, 2011 |
Libya is Nicolas Sarkozy's date with history. Behind the scenes of the Paris conference on Tripoli's future, the president was said to be revelling in his new French nickname, "Sarkozy the Libyan". In France, the intervention has been dubbed "Sarkozy's war", delighting him. By taking a leading role, the deeply unpopular leader hopes with one swoop to save the badly tarnished image of French policy in the Arab world, prove that France matters on the global stage and save his re-election battle for 2012.
Elysée observers say not since the cold war has a French leader made an international conflict such a personal obsession, poring over maps and plans, having the last word on arming rebel fighters. Many sensed a personal battle against his one-time friend turned enemy, Colonel Gaddafi.
Libyan Nationalism and Sovereignty -- Tuareg mercenaries traveling South.
In reference to BooMan's front page story - Declare the War on Terror Over, I wrote my reply in a diary - Dream On Guys. It wasn't shocking to me as I've been reading about the African situation throughout the last decade.
Al-Qaeda Jihadists In Northern Mali | BooMan - June 7, 2012 |
Mali has turned into a victim of "foreign terrorist aggression" as Afghan and Pakistani jihadists train Islamist recruits in the breakaway northern region, said Niger President Mahamadou Issofou in an interview.
"We have information of the presence of Afghans, Pakistanis in northern Mali operating as trainers," said Issofou in the interview from the capital Niamey. "They are training those that have been recruited in West Africa."
More than two months after northern Mali fell from government control following a March 22 military coup, the region has turned into a haven for rebel groups, with a motley mix of Tuareg separatist and Islamist groups controlling different parts of a region the size of France.
David Cameron offers France further help in Mali campaign | The Guardian - Jan. 28, 2013 |
David Cameron has told the French president, François Hollande, that Britain is "keen" to provide further military assistance to France in its operation to drive Islamist militants from Mali.
The prime minister has sent his national security adviser, Sir Kim Darroch, to Paris to discuss what help Britain could provide.
Britain has already provided two C-17 transport aircraft to help move French troops and equipment into Mali and a reconnaissance aircraft, the Sentinel R1, which were used during the Libya campaign.
The Guardian reported last week that a small number of British special forces soldiers were on the ground in Mali advising the French.
Russia to keep providing military assistance [Wagner group] to Mali despite Western criticism | France Diplomacy - Dec. 23, 2021 |
Malians protests against ECOWAS sanctions supported by the EU | France24 |
Mapping armed groups in Mali and the Sahel | ECFR |
Violence is tearing Mali and the Sahel apart. But who are the armed groups behind the bloodshed? Where are international actors stationed in the region? And what motivates them all? This project maps jihadist and non-jihadist groups and pinpoints the presence of external actors in the region as of May 2019.
Key words: Azawad - Tuareg - Al Qaeda
Follow-up Niger ....
Joint evaluation of the cooperation of the European Commission - BE - DK - FR - LUX with Niger between 2000-2008 | OECD - 2010 |
Being the largest and the most populous country of the Sahel region and acting as geopolitical buffer between Sahara and Nigeria, peace and stability in Niger plays a paramount role for the stability in the whole region. A breakdown of the social and political order could have a major destabilising effect on the region. The EU is acknowledging that Niger plays an important role in handling irregular migration, and Niger thus constitutes an essential partner in the EU´s cooperation with African partners on migration.
Niger: hub of migration routes from West Africa to Europe | KFW |
Niger as a return corridor
Since the beginning of the Libyan crisis in 2011, many migrants have returned to Niger or West Africa, including through deportations. In 2012 alone 114,500 Nigeriens returned from Libya. Since then, both migration to Libya and return migration from Libya have continued.
Nigeria: returning migrants at risk of new displacement or secondary migration
Areva - Uranium - Poverty - Survival - Emigration