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Old Strategy of Containment In a New Cold War

by Oui Sat Jan 29th, 2022 at 08:17:13 PM EST

Simplistic reasoning became the basis theorem of Pax Americana, America's 21st Century ... what a failure it has become.

Contain Al Qaeda .. became contain terror in Bush's War On Terror (WOT) ... the Neocons established their warmongering policy throughout the military, intelligence, think tanks, USIP, State Department ... and the failures and abuse of basic human rights mounted early on, as did the dead bodies in U.S. interventions. Diplomacy became bullying, multilateralism was throw out the window, John Bolton was appointed as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations ... a wrecking ball to diminish its power and influence ... turning the U.S. share of funding off.

Risk of rendition to detention in The Netherlands and brought before the ICC in The Hague?

The moral of a just war, what about using crippling sanctions to punish a sovereign state for its policy.

Why Are Economic Sanctions a Form of War?

Sanctions as War: Anti-imperialist Perspectives on American Geo-Economic Strategy offers the first comprehensive account of economic sanctions as a tool for exercising American power on the global stage. Since the 1980s, the US has steadily increased its reliance on economic sanctions, or the imposition of extensive financial penalties for violation of given rules, to fight its foreign policy battles. Perceived as a less costly and damaging alternative to kinetic military engagement, economic sanctions have been levied against over 25 other countries. In the process, sanctions have destroyed thousands of innocent lives and wreaked inestimable damages to civil society.

To understand how sanctions function as a war-making strategy, this collection offers chapters that address the theory and history of economic sanctions as well as chapter-length case studies of sanctions exercised against the civilian populations of Iraq, Venezuela, and other nations.

Chapter 1 Introduction

The United States has maintained unrivalled global economic, political, cultural, and military hegemony for 70 years since the end of the Second World War in 1945 and reinforced with the fall of the Soviet Union and for 25 years since the end of the Cold War in 1991. However, by the 2010s, American dominance in each of these four spheres has come under renewed contestation on a global basis. Most notable are China's rise as an engine of economic development and growth in East Asia and beyond and the resurgence of the Russian Federation as a formidable regional military competitor in Europe and the Middle East.

The shape of the emergent rivalry in 2020 is distinctive, as the US retains dominance in all four spheres but the incipient threats to its absolute domination has given rise to a new repertoire to defend and advance its imperialist advantages. At the peak of US power, the two decades from 1990 to 2010, the US controlled the global stage through rewarding and punishing regional challenges to its supreme neoliberal economic order through a global military alliance to overwhelm countries that challenged its dominance in every sphere. Thus, the era was denoted by expanding American-dominated global defense pacts, conquering nations that did not conform to neoliberalism, and opening up new lands and spaces for the accumulation of capitalist profits. In each case, the US has exploited its economic, political, cultural and military dominance to guarantee its world hegemony.

Renewed Great Power Competition: Implications for Defense--Issues for Congress  (Updated Dec. 21, 2021)

World War II -- US Marines land in North Africa | LIFE magazine |

There have been many unwanted U.S. Marines beach landings ever since to plant Old Glory on foreign soil  ...

'Encirclement' and 'containment' effectively have become America's default foreign policy

By Alastair Crooke

The key to China's security riposte to the U.S. is linked to two words that go unstated in U.S. formal policy documents, but whose silent presence nevertheless suffuses and colour-washes the text of the 2022 National Defence Authorisation Act.

The term `containment' never appears, neither does the word `encirclement'. Yet, as Professor Michael T. Klare writes, the Act "provides a detailed blueprint for surrounding China with a potentially suffocating network of U.S. bases, military forces, and increasingly militarized partner states. The goal is to enable Washington to barricade that country's military inside its own territory; and potentially to cripple its economy in any future crisis".

What the earlier patchwork of U.S. China measures lacked, until now, has been an overarching plan for curbing China's rise, and so ensuring America's permanent supremacy in the Indo-Pacific region: "The authors of this year's NDAA" however, "were remarkably focused on this deficiency, and several provisions of the bill are designed to provide just such a master plan".

These include a series of measures intended to incorporate Taiwan into the U.S. defence system surrounding China. And a requirement for the drafting of a comprehensive "grand strategy" for containing China "on every front".

Biden Tightens the Noose Around China | Consortium News |

The term "containment" never comes up, writes Michael T. Klare. But nonetheless, here is the new 21st century Cold War on a planet desperately in need of something else.

Still, America's top leaders have reached a consensus on a strategy to encircle and contain the latest great power, China, with hostile military alliances, thereby thwarting its rise to full superpower status.

The gigantic 2022 defense bill -- passed with overwhelming support from both parties -- provides a detailed blueprint for surrounding China with a potentially suffocating network of U.S. bases, military forces, and increasingly militarized partner states. The goal is to enable Washington to barricade that country's military inside its own territory and potentially cripple its economy in any future crisis. For China's leaders, who surely can't tolerate being encircled in such a fashion, it's an open invitation to... well, there's no point in not being blunt... fight their way out of confinement.

Like every "defense" bill before it, the $768 billion 2022 NDAA is replete with all-too-generous handouts to military contractors for favored Pentagon weaponry. That would include F-35 jet fighters, Virginia-class submarines, Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, and a wide assortment of guided missiles. But as the Senate Armed Services Committee noted in a summary of the bill, it also incorporates an array of targeted appropriations and policy initiatives aimed at encircling, containing, and someday potentially overpowering China. Among these are an extra $7.1 billion for the Pacific Deterrence Initiative, or PDI, a program initiated last year with the aim of bolstering U.S. and allied forces in the Pacific.

Nor are these just isolated items in that 2,186-page bill. The authorization act includes a "sense of Congress" measure focused on "defense alliances and partnerships in the Indo-Pacific Region," providing a conceptual blueprint for such an encirclement strategy. Under it, the secretary of defense is enjoined to "strengthen United States defense alliances and partnerships in the Indo-Pacific region so as to further the comparative advantage of the United States in strategic competition with the People's Republic of China," or PRC.

The Enduring Lure of Encirclement

    May 2, 2001: U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, center, hosts a working lunch with, from left, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, U.S. National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice and U.S. Vice-President, Dick Cheney, in Washington, D.C. (National Archives, Helene C. Stikkel)

    An Oral History of the Bush White House | Vanity Fair |

    The threat of 9/11 ignored. The threat of Iraq hyped and manipulated. Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib. Hurricane Katrina. The shredding of civil liberties. The rise of Iran. Global warming. Economic disaster. How did one two-term presidency go so wrong? A sweeping draft of history--distilled from scores of interviews--offers fresh insight into the roles of George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and other key players.

The notion of surrounding China with a chain of hostile powers was, in fact, first promoted as official policy in the early months of President George W. Bush's administration. At that time, Vice President Dick Cheney and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice went to work establishing an anti-China alliance system in Asia, following guidelines laid out by Rice in a January 2000 article in Foreign Affairs.

There, she warned of Beijing's efforts to "alter Asia's balance of power in its own favor" -- a drive the U.S. must respond to by deepening "its cooperation with Japan and South Korea" and by "maintain[ing] its commitment to a robust military presence in the region." It should, she further indicated, "pay closer attention to India's role in the regional balance."

Afghan Transfer of Power to Taliban | Aug. 15, 2021 |

Doomed to fail - next step to bottle up the Russian Federation ...

Anti-war protesters gather in front of the White House to demonstrate against escalating tensions between the United States and Russia over Ukraine on January 27, 2022, in Washington, D.C. (Photo: Win McNamee/Getty Images)

Progressives Must Demand Peace in Ukraine

As corporate media provides a parade of pro-war politicians and pundits from both the Democratic and Republican parties, grassroots movements must demand peace and diplomacy, now, before the outbreak of war.

My previous diary ...

US Ups Tension with Russia

Inside Joe Biden's Foreign-Policy Worldview | Foreign Affairs |

December 1970 must have seemed an inauspicious moment to launch a new magazine on international affairs. The fighting in Vietnam ground on, even expanding into Cambodia and Laos, with little to show for U.S. President Richard Nixon's policy of Vietnamization. Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger's moves toward detente with the Soviet Union and the opening with China had not yet borne much fruit.

Humanitarians had been shocked and disillusioned by the multiyear civil war over Nigeria's Biafra region, which had resulted in half a million to 2 million civilian deaths by 1970.

Amid anxiety over inflation, Washington was just months from suspending the dollar's full link to the price of gold--a pillar of the Bretton Woods institutions that had sustained U.S. postwar economic primacy.

If it was an odd moment for the creation of Foreign Policy, it was just as strange a time for a young lawyer only just elected to county council in Delaware to begin telling colleagues he wanted to run for the U.S. Senate--to work on foreign policy and oppose the Vietnam War.

But Foreign Policy is very much still with us--and so is Joe Biden. Fifty years after the U.S. president-elect assumed his first elective office on the New Castle County Council, he is at once the most widely traveled, and best known to his fellow world leaders, incumbent in the history of the presidency. (Yes, Thomas Jefferson also traveled a lot but only on one continent.) Unlike many of his predecessors, Biden has been looking to engage more in U.S. foreign policy, rather than less, throughout his life in politics. Yet he is not generally regarded as a hero, or even a central player, in our retelling of the last 50 years of U.S. national security.

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 10:24:24 AM EST
Joe Biden's drive to end 40 years of neoliberal hegemony

The US president has been more ambitious than European leaders in seeking to kick-start the economy with an unprecedented program of stimulus packages

The author of this convulsion is an 78-year-old man who has turned the world on its head against all forecasts. Joe Biden, a US Democrat born in the fiscal paradise of Delaware, voted enthusiastically in favor of Reagan's tax cuts in the 1980s and he was vice-president under the grandiloquent former US president Barack Obama, who could have been the architect of a paradigm shift a decade ago but was thwarted by ferocious opposition from Republicans and Wall Street and ended up leaving Trump as his legacy.

Biden took up residence in the White House with a halo of being a political moderate, even a little boring, who tended to hire senior Goldman Sachs executives to do the talking. "Do I look like a radical socialist?" he asked during the election campaign, looking straight at a television camera. And yet there are no Goldman Sachs executives in his administration and Biden has surprised his own party, including the dormant left wing, and everybody else with a spectacular first 100 days in office that has led to a temptation to talk about a paradigm shift.

For too long, the economy has worked great for those at the top, while working families get squeezed | The White House |

Manchin statement on the Build Back Better Act

Biden says he thinks Congress can pass parts of broken-up Build Back Better plan | CNBC - Jan. 19, 2022 |

As the clock is ticking steadily towards the November mid-terms and the end of Biden's legislative window. Such a great world power and demonstration of irrelevance.

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 10:37:27 AM EST
Deterred by a corrupt Democratic Party ... the Israel issue trump's progressive values.

Tough-talking, Jewish, pro-Israel Florida representative was the first woman elected to head the DNC | TOI - July 25, 2016 |

Debbie Wasserman Schultz announced she would step down as DNC chairwoman at the end of the party's convention. Her resignation follows the leak of some 19,000 emails -- presumably stolen by hackers and posted to the website Wikileaks -- that suggest the DNC favored Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders.

To Sanders's supporters, the email scandal proved what they long suspected: The Democratic Party had become a clubby establishment that was resistant to change and reluctant to embrace a more progressive agenda.

With the risk of HRC losing the election after her campaign remark a basket of deplorables, illustrating her arrogance and gap with working people.

International Coalition to Defeat Democrats and Hillary in 2016

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 11:00:19 AM EST
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Violence will only end when hate is ripped from your hearts ... too long in denial. Racism and xenophobia blocks a road to peace and end unnecessary wars. Gaining profits by obliterating competition too increases inequality and equal opportunity. Conservatism is a corrupt state of affairs as we see every day in Whitehall.

Operation Save Big Dog is filled with war rhetoric wagging the dog ...

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 12:43:37 PM EST
The Confrontation in Ukraine Is Political Theater Aimed at a Domestic Audience | The Nation - Dec. 10, 2021 |

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 12:44:38 PM EST
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Bill Browder doing the rounds on British Sunday Talk Shows ... the legislation on choking sanctions have been written and will be presented this week.

Neocons on the Thames - by Colman in 2005

Khodorkovsky - The Interpreter - Henry Jackson Society

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 01:45:57 PM EST
UK carrying water for crappy, fraudulent US intel.  Where have I seen that before?
by rifek on Tue Feb 8th, 2022 at 08:24:07 PM EST
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Building Trust in the NATO-Russia relationship: what NATO can offer | Leadership Network - 2012 |
Author Linas Linkevičius

For me the key issue before us is building trust in the NATO-Russia relationship, and the key question is not what NATO can offer in this regard but what can NATO offer that it has not already offered before? My strong conviction is also that NATO sometimes lacks consistency of position, lacks focus on the goals to be achieved, and pursues no clear long-term strategy. It ends up strategically undermining its own interests and the relationship with Russia as a result, through the pursuit of short-term, often inappropriate, fixes.n

Let me turn to the history first, to set any further NATO moves in the context of what the Alliance has tried before. I would remind readers that:

* In 1991 the North Atlantic Cooperation Council was established, eventually involving all of the former communist countries of central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Its aim was to build trust and confidence through political dialogue. Even before that, NATO had contributed by engaging in significant reductions of tactical nuclear arsenals, and had done so without the need to alter the foundations of its nuclear posture as articulated in both the 1991 and 1999 Strategic Concepts.

    We emphasized that since 1991, in the context of the improved security environment and in keeping with the Alliance's stated principle of keeping its forces at the minimum sufficient level, NATO has reduced the types and numbers of its sub-strategic nuclear forces by over 85 percent. These reductions included the complete elimination of all nuclear artillery and ground-launched missiles. Furthermore, NATO has significantly relaxed the readiness criteria for nuclear-roled forces.

The breakdown of world order was initiated by the Bush/Cheney administration after the 9/11 attacks on America. The War on Terror did not reduce terror, but increased death and suffering across the globe a hundredfold. [Florida election won by Bush after intervention SCOTUS]

From 2004 forward, the US changed policy to become a sole world power, make the United Nations irrelevant and make Russia a pariah state ...

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 06:53:59 PM EST
Address by Mr. Linas Linkevičius, Minister of National Defence of Lithuania at the EAPC Defence Ministers meeting | June 2002 |

What has changed his mindset??

Former Secretary General of NATO during this period of change Jan. 2004 till he suffered an heart attack July 21, 2009 ...

Jaap De Hoop Scheffer: "The West should respect the red lines of Russia" (Op-Ed Dec. 2017)

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 06:56:03 PM EST
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The Future in the Past:
Victory, Defeat, and Grand Strategy in the US, UK, France and Germany | UvA - Jan. 30, 2015 |

This book argues that victory and defeat in war shape the post-war grand strategies of states, specifically their use of military force and diplomacy. It focuses on the experiences of the belligerent states of the Second World War, and in particular on those of the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. To explore the argument, the book utilises regression analysis, historical analysis, counterfactual thought experiments, content analysis of documents, and a series of fifty interviews with American, British, French, and German policymakers.

The findings show that victory increases the propensity of states to use force and decreases their propensity to use diplomacy, while defeat fosters the opposite. Experiences with war also shape the types of military capabilities and alliances that policymakers prefer, and their perception of threats. Finally, victory strengthens the legitimacy and influence of policymakers, while defeat constrains them, thereby reinforcing the lessons drawn from war.

[Author Dr. Paul van Hooft is a lecturer on strategy and transatlantic relations at the University of Amsterdam (UVA). He defended his dissertation on "The Future in the Past: Victory, Defeat, and Grand Strategy in the US, UK, France and Germany" on January 15, 2015.]

What constitutes victory in modern war?

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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 07:36:53 PM EST
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by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 30th, 2022 at 08:55:35 PM EST
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Lord Hastings Ismay

Lionel Ismay was NATO's first Secretary General from 1952-1957, a position he was initially reluctant to accept. By the end of his tenure however, Ismay had become the biggest advocate of the organisation he had famously said earlier on in his political career, was created to "keep the Soviet Union out, the Americans in, and the Germans down."

NATO was established by European states in 1948 to keep the US involved. The founding principle was to keep Germany down. It was Lord Ismay who changed the focus by adding the reference to the Soviet Union. Fear of Communist expansionism after coup d'état in Prague of 1948.

Founding member The Netherlands ...

Dirk Stikker, Foreign Minister,
speaking at the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty Washington, D.C., 4 April 1949

In London, the Foreign Ministers Van Kleffens (the Netherlands), Spaak (Belgium) and Bech (Luxembourg) developed a close personal wartime collaboration. They were strong supporters of Western European unity and maintaining close ties with the United Kingdom. All three Benelux countries signed the United Nations Charter in San Francisco in 1945.

Later, due to the increasing fear of Soviet expansionism, they actively contributed to the creation of the Western Union with the signing of the Brussels Pact in 1948, the first guarantee of their security within a regional defensive alliance.

Western Union

On 4 March 1947, France and the United Kingdom signed a mutual assistance pact in Dunkirk. In the post-war climate, this friendship and cooperation treaty was openly targeted at vanquished Germany in order to forestall any new aggression on its part. The French Government sought to guard against what it still considered a potential threat from across the Rhine.

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by Oui (Oui) on Tue Feb 1st, 2022 at 12:32:09 AM EST

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 02:04:01 PM EST
Russia Is Connected to Western Europe | Nov. 4, 2021 |

I have voiced strong views about the choice of NATO to set a policy of division. Former US Ambassador Ivo Daalder to Brussels stated as such: make Russia a pariah state. The process followed a step-by-step procedure to boot Russia out of all channels of diplomacy and communication. Angering the Russian Bear, the expected and calculated push-back followed in response.

The so-called social revolutions in Ukraine and Georgia were prime examples of forcing regime change to get these nations into the sphere of NATO in opposition to Russia. The last NATO Summit in Bucharest under George Bush stated a clear goal to boot Russia out of NATO. What did not succeed in revolutions 2004 and 2008, succeeded in 2014 under Joe Biden and right-hand Cheney hold-out Victoria Nuland. Lots have been opinioned and written about that chapter. What followed was extensive lobbyists and utter propaganda to discipline media to write unfavorably about Russia.

This media chapter has all the hallmarks of Operation Mockingbird by US Intelligence during the hot Cold War.

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 02:04:46 PM EST
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by Oui (Oui) on Thu Feb 24th, 2022 at 07:54:24 PM EST
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The trend towards right-wing politics after social-democracy is losing out and right-wing think tanks set policy for The Hague.

Headline: SPD as Russia's 'fifth column'

The SPD weakens Europe's position towards Russia. She is against NATO military aid to Ukraine and stands up for Moscow remarkably often. Several high-ranking Social Democrats play a dubious role.

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 03:11:13 PM EST

She refers to the Chamberlain moment? However in 1939 ...

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 08:26:38 PM EST
The secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact are one of the most sensitive questions in Soviet Lithuanian historiography

On June 8 the British Foreign Minister Viscount Halifax pointed" out in the House of Commons that the government thought it proper to pay attention "to the wishes of the third countries." On July 4 Molotov amended his proposal of June 2, introducing the concept of "indirect aggression" that was defined as "an internal coup d'etat or a reversal of policy in the interests of aggression" in a number of border states, including Estonia, Latvia, Poland, Rumania and several others.

When Britain rejected this proposal, Molotov offered another definition of "indirect aggression", making clear once again the Soviet Union's concern with the Baltics. As examples of "indirect aggression", he noted the possibility of Estonia and Latvia making a treaty with Germany, inconsistent with their independence and neutrality, or employing German military instructors. Once again agreement was not forthcoming.

On August 17 Viscount Halifax suggested to the British Ambassador in Moscow that he discuss with the Soviets all unresolved political problems, including "indirect aggression", but by then it was too late.

World War II In Europe | Holocaust Encyclopedia|

Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime envisioned a vast, new empire of "living space" (Lebensraum) for Germans in eastern Europe by the removal of existing populations.

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 08:34:39 PM EST
[ Parent ]
The Lithuanian Strip In Soviet-German Secret Diplomacy 1939-1941

According to Stalin, "A new imperialist war is already in its second year, a war waged over a huge territory stretching from Shanghai to Gibraltar..."

Yet there is another message in Stalin's speech that is even more important, "The war has created a new situation with regard to relations between countries. [...] By undermining the basis of the post-war peace regime and overriding the elementary principles of international law, it has cast doubt on the value of international treaties and obligations".

[Source: 18th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union - March 1939]

History repeating itself, the US failing International Law and undermining the value of the United Nations. The John Bolton dogma and extremist Neocons taking control.

Interesting read ...

Double Genocide | Slate - July 2015 |

Lithuania wants to erase its ugly history of Nazi collaboration--by accusing Jewish partisans who fought the Germans of war crimes.

Operation Barbarossa and Germany's Failure In the Soviet Union

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 08:39:19 PM EST
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Second occupation of the Baltic States by the Soviet Union and a brutal Communist regime with revenge on the population.

Competing Histories -- Soviet War Crimes in the Baltic States | Oxford |

In 1941, Germany attacked the USSR and occupied the Baltic states. The Nazis began carrying out their own repression campaign; murdering local Jews, Roma and those with Communist sympathies. Also, a significant number of Jews from other countries were brought into the Baltics for execution. Altogether some 300,000 people were murdered on Baltic soil during the German Occupation.

In 1944, the Red Army invaded again and re-established Soviet rule. The authorities were now confronted with a group of individuals--known as the `forest brethren'--hiding from the Soviet authorities in the woods, and to some extent engaging in guerrilla warfare tactics. A two-fold strategy was adopted to deal with them. On the one hand, there began a campaign of extrajudicial executions of the forest brethren, who were regarded as `bandits'. On the other hand, to reduce support for them, another wave of deportations was undertaken. Deportation also served the purpose of accelerating the collectivization of agriculture through `dekulakization'--the physical removal of well-off farmers.

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 08:40:47 PM EST
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It's really difficult to find much information about this, so all pointers will be gratefully received, but to me there is a pattern with all these Baltic countries: all were semi-feudal at the start of 20th century, all failed in their democracy by 30's and all folded under Soviet pressure almost immediately.

Also what's often left unsaid regarding the deportations in 1941 and 1949, the huge majority of perpetrators were locals who selected the victims, often directed the operations and also mostly served as the muscle to collect and herd people.

I can't avoid thinking that for many people in the Baltics their new states were really not worth fighting for, and when given a chance there was a lot of settling of scores. After wars of independence, establishing democracy and then nothing fundamentally changing just to eventually turn for the worse could have been a disappointment for many.

But, as I said, it's hard to find anything studying the era from any unbiased point of view. So I may be talking out of my fanny, in which case I'd be happy to be pointed in the right direction.

by pelgus on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 09:58:32 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Father Patrick Desbois spent over a decade documenting some of the Nazis' least known atrocities in the killing fields of Ukraine.

The first major massacre in the 'Holocaust by bullets': Babi Yar, 80 years on | France24 |

A Priest Methodically Reveals Ukrainian Jews' Fate ...

Background: The Ukrainian Pogroms of Summer 1942 | USHMM |

Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, pogroms took place in virtually every Galician town or village, from the capital Lemberg/Lwów/L'viv to provincial towns such as Złoczew/Zolochiv, Tarnopol/Ternopil, Żółkiew/Zhovkva, Drohobych/Drohobycz, Borysław/Boryslav, Brzeżany/Berezhany, Sambor/Sambir, Stryj, Kolomyja, Obertyn, and others, as well as in dozens of villages and hamlets in which the Jewish population was simply wiped away by its peasant neighbors.

The pogroms broke out with extreme violence. Perpetrators used household or agricultural tools such as bats, axes, sickles, and sticks with razor blades to kill at random any Jew they encountered. Although in some places only men or professionals (lawyers, doctors) were targeted, in others, women, elderly people, and even children were attacked.

The violence took place during the last days of June and during July 1941, in several waves: simultaneous with or even before the arrival of the German troops; during the "prison actions" (after the discovery of prisoners massacred by the NKVD just before the Soviet withdrawal); during several actions aimed at humiliating and beating down the local Jewish population; and finally in late July during the "Petliura days," when the Nazis offered the Ukrainian populace an opportunity to avenge the assassination of the Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura by a young Jew in Paris in 1926.

The acts of violence and murder were associated with the looting of the Jews' property, the burning of synagogues, and the widespread abuse of Jewish women. They occurred with or without the presence of the occupying forces: Germans participated only in about half of the incidents, even if in some instances--such as in Zolochiv--they played a major role.

The pogroms often, though not always, took place following the discovery of earlier NKVD massacres in the local prisons: only half of the towns and none of the remote villages had an NKVD office. If massacres by the NKVD were indeed discovered, Jews were randomly pulled out of their houses and brought to dig up the mass graves, retrieve and clean the corpses ....

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 09:34:33 PM EST

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by Oui (Oui) on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 09:35:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]
In Soviet Union they had trials as late as in the 70s convicting people for collaborating or being directly involved in the atrocities during the German occupation.

They had a special commission recording atrocities as soon as an area had been liberated. They dug up the graves, they interviewed victims and witnesses, they took the names.

An archive of horrors for people like father Desbois to go trough.

by pelgus on Wed Feb 9th, 2022 at 10:17:45 PM EST
[ Parent ]

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by Oui (Oui) on Thu Feb 10th, 2022 at 06:24:24 AM EST
Unfolding drama for the Americans and Quad allies in SE Asia.

Ties with China 'cornerstone' of Pakistan's foreign policy: PM | Tribune |

Prime Minister Imran Khan underscored that the Pakistan-China relationship was "the cornerstone of its foreign policy" as both sides reiterated their support on issues "concerning each other's core interests".

According to a joint statement released after the meeting of PM Imran with Chinese President Xi Jinping, the Pakistan side expressed its "commitment to One-China Policy and support for China on Taiwan, South China Sea, Hong Kong, Xinjiang and Tibet".

"The Chinese side reaffirmed its support for Pakistan in safeguarding its sovereignty, independence and security, as well as promoting its socio-economic development and prosperity," it added.

As per the statement: "The leaders of the two countries held in-depth exchange of views on the entire spectrum of bilateral relations as well as the regional situation and international political landscape."

PM Imran also lauded Xi for his Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), saying the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) significantly contributed to Pakistan's economic and social development.

Pakistan Warming Up Ties with Iran | Sept. 1, 2018 |

Saudi Arabia with Crown Prince Salman tried, but likely failed to convince Imran Khan to join alliance against Iran. Offering large sum of oil dollars ...

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 07:20:13 PM EST

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 07:22:21 PM EST
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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 08:35:03 PM EST

Secr. Blinken: "The Quad is a vital part of our vision for the Indo-Pacific and shows the priority we place on working with partners and allies in the region. We had a productive discussion on issues that shape our collective prosperity and security."

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 08:36:07 PM EST
In between visits ...

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 08:38:21 PM EST
[ Parent ]

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 08:39:24 PM EST
Any human rights issues on the table Toni?

Hijab row: The India woman who is the face of the fight to wear headscarf | BBC News |

A ban on Islamic veils in schools in a southern Indian state has sparked protests and counter-protests between Muslim and Hindu, raising religious identity issues that have long served the ruling Hindu nationalist party's electoral agenda as the country's most populous state holds a critical election.

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by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 08:40:25 PM EST
[ Parent ]
🌏 😇

American appreciating the United Nations, International law, drone killings, extrajudicial assassinations, war crimes continuing every day ...

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 09:44:44 PM EST
It's lately been apparent that this "right to choose their own path" doesn't involve Belarus, Russia, India, Turkey or Syria.

There's probably more, but those came to mind instantly as being either coerced, intimidated, sanctioned or even bombed due to actually selecting a path not approved by Washington.

by pelgus on Fri Feb 11th, 2022 at 09:54:24 PM EST
[ Parent ]

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Feb 21st, 2022 at 06:52:06 AM EST

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