Thu Nov 10th, 2022 at 10:33:17 AM EST
Two events stood out today. De Gaulle would not refer to the de-colonization of Algeria as a war, just referred to "events." From colonies, De Gaulle attempted to build a form of "cooperation" to reap benefits out of former colonies. Opposition leaders were quite often eliminated by any means under the pretense of "communist sympathies".
A documentary in four parts on Al Jazeera ...
Blood and Tears: French Decolonization
Why is Algeria angry at Emmanuel Macron? | Inside Story |
French colonial rule in Algeria lasted 132 years, beginning in 1830 with the invasion of the capital, Algiers, and continuing until the war for independence, which concluded with the signing of the Evian Accords in March 1962.
The treaty marked the end of a bitter war. Between 1954 and 1962 up to 1.5 million Algerians are believed to have died. French forces repressed any form of resistance, particularly those fighting for independence, known as mujahideen.
After decolonization, France set up a new form under the umbrella of participation named France-Afrique ...
Macron unveils shift in military posture as war returns to Europe
France's new strategic document provides that the country will maintain a "capacity to lead military operations, including those of high intensity, alone or within a coalition."
French troops will maintain their large presence abroad in an area stretching from sub-Saharan Africa to the Middle East, through the Horn of Africa, Macron said.
He said France will launch talks in coming days with its African partners and regional organizations to make changes to the "status, format and missions of the current French military bases in the Sahel and West Africa." A new organization, based on cooperation between French and local armed forces, will be finalized withing six months of the discussions, he said.
Macron's speech marks the formal end of the so-called Barkhane force after France withdrew its troops from Mali earlier this year following tensions with the ruling military regime.
French operations to help fighting Islamic extremists in the Sahel region are focusing on Niger, Chad and Burkina Faso, where the country has about 3,000 troops.
A perfect illustration from the film: "The Mouse That Roared."
Despite all words of projections and promises, to save the planet Europe and NATO cannot engage in futile wars to the benefit of global hegemony of U.S. Colonization by other means. The Pentagon and US NATO Command in Brussels aren't democratic institutions, but are nearly autonomous run by the Military Industrial Complex [add Five Eyes] Dwight Eisenhower warned the world about. Today Big Tech has joined foreign wars of oppression without any political oversight. What started with the "Arab Spring" in 2011 continues unabated today. Pegasus manifest in Europe. Undemocracy reigns.
We will not sacrifice our climate commitments under the energy threat from Russia.
Russia Is Connected to Western Europe
Les USA avec De Gaulle, ce n'était pas l'Amérique
De Gaulle was the man of facts, nothing but facts. His main qualities were his great memory and a long-term vision, a clear-sighted and fundamentally independent spirit.
On January 4, 1963, De Gaulle said:
"Western Europe has become, without even realizing it, a protectorate of the Americans. Now it is a question of getting rid of this domination. But the difficulty in this case is that the colonized do not really seek to emancipate themselves. The views of the Pentagon on planetary strategy, the views of American business on the world economy, are imposed on us. Many Europeans are in favor of it." (Excerpts: It was De Gaulle by Alain Peyrefitte)
This observation of yesterday has lost none of its accuracy today.
On January 22, 1963, a treaty of cooperation and reconciliation was signed between France and the Federal Republic of Germany, without the blessing of the USA, which was faced with a fait accompli. It is the beginning of a political Europe, having nothing to do with a Europe of markets.
Still at the beginning of the year, but in 1964, De Gaulle created the diplomatic event, by being the first politician of international stature, to have People's China recognized by France, without asking permission from the USA.
And here is what he says: "there is something abnormal in the fact that we have no relations with the most populous country in the world, on the pretext that its regime does not please the Americans" remarks made and reported by Alain Peyrefitte.
On June 20, 1966 De Gaulle made an official visit to the USSR, without anyone's agreement, no doubt doing good measure with the beginning of rapprochement with Communist China. This visit will be accompanied by numerous cooperation agreements, always in the spirit of independence which was his.
These significant agreements revealed, to say the least, a desire to open all the doors closed by decision of others.
How to become a powerful nation when your country does not have a large population, nor a large area, and devoid of raw materials such as oil and gas?
Nuclear deterrence then became his ultimate desire, ignoring all other priorities, leading to the Geneva Accords of 1962, to the great displeasure of the Pieds Noirs and the Harkis.
Indeed, it needed an adequate territory, and insurance over a long period. The first nuclear test in the open air was in 1960, and from 1961 until 1966, the tests will be underground, all in southern Algeria.
Nuclear tests will continue in the Pacific, even after the resignation of De Gaulle
The attitude of the vassal under the protection of the United States was coming to an end.
France had American NATO bases on its soil. In 1958, when De Gaulle arrived, the American military strength was 50,417 soldiers, the last will leave in 1967.
De Gaulle will add a last oral provocation with "vive le Québec libre" on July 24, 1967.
It is undeniable that his obsession to free himself from the influence of the USA, goes through Europe (speech of November 22, 1959 in Strasbourg)
"Yes, it is Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals, it is Europe, it is all of Europe, which will decide the fate of the world"
Press conference of May 15, 1962
"There can be no other Europe than the Europe of States"
Q. - What are the reasons that have determined France to present a project - known as Plan Fouchet - political organization of the Europe of the Six?
De Gaulle - In a world where everything boils down to the threat of a general conflict, the idea of a united Western Europe which would have enough strength, enough means and enough cohesion to exist on its own, this this idea appears quite naturally. Especially since the enmities that had secularly torn Europe apart, in particular the opposition between Germany and France, have now ceased. As a result, here is brought to light, first of all the character that can be called complementary - from the geographical, strategic, economic, cultural, etc. point of view. - of the peoples of this part of the ancient continent, Western Europe. And then, at the same time, the overall capacity they represent in terms of power, production, creation, exchanges, in relation to the general activity of the universe. Finally, the possibilities that their whole could offer to the two billion men who populate the underdeveloped countries. These are facts that have led six States of the Continent to try to establish special links between them.
Already, during the world war - I take the liberty of recalling this - I proclaimed that this development was one of the essential aims of France. In this order of ideas, we have already done something positive called the European Economic Community which was created, in principle, by the Treaty of Rome and implemented, first of all, thanks to our economic recovery and Financial of 1958 and 1959 - because, if we did not make this recovery, there was no Community that held. - Implementation, in the second place, thanks to the fact that, last January, we obtained that agriculture enter the Common Market and, correlatively, agreed to move on to the second phase, that is to say a real app. There is thus an economic organization such that, little by little, the customs barriers between the Six are being erased. This does not fail to arouse their efforts, while, gradually, their respective productions are adjusted, regulated, so that the Common Market can, in good order, either absorb them itself, or exchange them abroad. out. It's something, it's a lot, it's not all.
In the eyes of France, this economic construction is not enough. Western Europe - whether it is a question of its action vis-à-vis other peoples, or of its own defence, or of its contribution to the development of regions which need it, or of its duty to detente and international balance - Western Europe must constitute itself politically. Moreover, if it did not succeed in this, the Economic Community itself could not in the long run become stronger, or even maintain itself. In other words, Europe needs institutions that lead it to form a political whole, as it already is in the economic order.
France therefore took the initiative to propose such an organization and you know that, last year in April, the six Heads of State or Government met in Paris to discuss its project. They did it again in Bonn in July. Then, a political commission was formed in Paris - the Fouchet commission - which was intended to finalize the text of a treaty of union. In the meantime, many bilateral and multilateral meetings were taking place on this subject. It was finally agreed that a summit meeting of the Six would be held in Rome to conclude, if necessary. We know why and we know how we have not yet succeeded.
What does France offer its five partners? I repeat it once more. To organize ourselves politically, let's start at the beginning. Let's organize our cooperation. Let us periodically bring together our Heads of State or Government so that they can jointly examine the problems which are ours and so that they can take decisions regarding them which will be those of Europe. Let us form a political commission, a defense commission and a cultural commission, just as we already have an economic commission in Brussels which studies common questions and which prepares the decisions of the six Governments. Naturally, the political committee and the others will proceed, in this respect, under conditions specific to the particular fields which will be theirs. In addition, the ministers responsible for these various points of view will meet whenever necessary to jointly apply the decisions which will have been taken by the Council. Finally, we have a European Parliamentary Assembly which sits in Strasbourg and which is made up of delegations from our six national parliaments. Let us put this Assembly in a position to discuss common political questions as it already discusses economic questions. After experience, we will see in three years how we can strengthen our ties. But, at the very least, we will have started to get used to living and acting together. This is what France has proposed. She believes this is the most practical thing that can be done.
Interview Michel Droit with Charles De Gaulle | June 7, 1968 | Video
Blames the call for democratization by student protestors as part of a communist plot.
Fin officielle de l'opération militaire française « Barkhane » au Sahel, après presque dix ans d'existence
Photo's explosion Nord Stream 1 and 2
An event which sealed European future dependance on America as a mere vassal state doing its proxy war vis-à-vis Russia and China.