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Censorship a Characteristic of Advanced Fascism

by Oui Fri Dec 30th, 2022 at 05:36:49 PM EST

EU/NATO Propaganda It's About Daesh and Russia [Update5] | Nov. 24, 2016 |

After the failure of PropOrNot in November 2016 ...

Turn to Europe to censor media ...


Attempt by the EU Commission task force to censor news across Europe:

Dutch Media Take EU Disinfo Watchdog to Court | March 2018 |

The Tweede Kamer, the lower house of Dutch parliament, wants to get rid of the European Commission's task force against spreading fake news, the so-called EUvsDisinfo. This follows the task force naming a number of Dutch news services as spreaders of fake news, Het Parool reports.

The Dutch news services involved are NPO Radio 1, the Gelderlander, GeenStijl and The Post Online. According to the task force, pro-Russian propaganda gained the upper hand in a few reports from these organizations.

The fourteen identifying characteristics of fascism

Some scholarly articles ...

Disinformation as a context-bound phenomenon: toward a conceptual clarification integrating actors, intentions and techniques of creation and dissemination | Communication Theory by Michael Hameleers - Oct. 12, 2022 UvA |

In a more contextual definition of a "disinformation order," Bennett and Livingston (2018) emphasize that the socio-political embeddings and regional contexts of disinformation are crucial to consider. Disinformation--across various contexts--can be seen as a disruptive form of communication that has to be understood in the setting of the media and political landscape it is created and consumed in. Hence, disinformation may thrive in contexts where distrust, populism and corruption are more central, and when the alternative and deceptive narratives forwarded in disinformation offer a credible interpretation of the socio-political world (also see Humprecht et al., 2020 for a discussion on regional resonance). When focusing on the political context of disinformation, it is important to note that although most research has focused on radical right-wing (populist) settings (e.g., Egelhofer & Lecheler, 2019; Marwick & Lewis, 2017), disinformation can also cling on to (radical) left-wing ideologies (e.g., Nikolov et al., 2021) or other issue positions. What matters is that disinformation may strategically exploit socio-political cleavages to create confusion, amplify conflicts and further divide societies.

Beyond contexts of deception, another element considered in disinformation literature is the extent to which deceptive information deviates from objective facts, empirical knowledge, and verified information (e.g., Lewandowsky, 2021; Tandoc et al., 2018; Van der Linden et al., 2021). Deception is arguably more credible when it uses some elements of the truth, and disinformation agents may capitalize on the truth bias by offering concrete linkages to real facts to frame deception. People generally have a hard time detecting deception (Allcott & Gentzkov, 2017; Edgerly et al., 2020; Oh & Park, 2021), and, unless suspicion is triggered, people are intrinsically wired to accept the honesty and accuracy of information, which is explicated in the Truth-Default Theory (TDT) (Levine, 2014). Based on this, disinformation agents may use techniques of deception and dissemination that make inauthentic content seem real (i.e., through deepfake techniques and astroturfing), which avoids the activation of suspected deception among recipients who do not have the resources to systematically scrutinize all arguments. Thus, although the TDT is a reception theory, it may help to explain how targeted disinformation is processed by recipients, and how malign actors may exploit a truth bias in an overloaded information setting by manipulating public opinion.

Rutte and freedom of expression | UvA - 2009 |

The proposal of the VVD fraction in parliament follows the American doctrine in which a distinction is made between 'public speech' and 'private speech'. 'Public speech' then takes a 'preferred position' in relation to other interests and fundamental rights because of the importance of the public debate. This doctrine is based on Meiklejohn's theory and has found its way into the jurisprudence of the US Supreme Court. In addition, the clear and present danger test plays an important role in American jurisprudence.

Constitutional Law--Immigration: Meiklejohn Theory of the First Amendment Applied in the Immigration Context--Mandel v. Mitchell, 325 F. Supp. 620 (E.D.N.Y.), appeal docketed 40 U.S.L.W. 3035 (U.S. July 13, 1971)

The Right to Communications Confidentiality in Europe: Protecting Privacy, Freedom of Expression, and Trust

We show that at its core the right to communications confidentiality protects three individual and collective values: privacy, freedom of expression, and trust in communication services. The right aims to ensure that individuals and organizations can safely entrust communication to service providers. Initially, the right protected only postal letters, but it has gradually developed into a strong safeguard for the protection of confidentiality of communications, regardless of the technology used.

Hence, the right does not merely serve individual privacy interests, but also other more collective interests that are crucial for the functioning of our information society. We conclude that separate EU rules to protect communications confidentiality, next to the GDPR, are justified and necessary.

...
This Article discusses the protection of the right to confidentiality of communications in Europe. In 2017, the European Commission published a proposal for an ePrivacy Regulation, which includes rules to protect the confidentiality of electronic communications. Some have argued that there is no need for an ePrivacy Regulation, because the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), is sufficient to protect privacy.

Why people would (not) change their media use in response to perceived corporate surveillance

This study employed a combination of a thought-listing exercise conducted in the Netherlands (N = 300) and a cross-sectional survey in the United States (N = 148) and the Netherlands (N = 156) in which respondents were presented with a scenario regarding corporate surveillance and asked about their motivations (not) to change their media use. The studies showed that privacy was a more important motivation for the intent to change media use in the United States, while in the Netherlands people were less motivated to change due to seeing less potential harm of corporate surveillance. The results could be explained by cultural differences or differences in legal pro- tection. Finally, older people saw less threats and were less able to protect themselves, while younger individuals were not motivated to make changes to their media use because of mobile device dependency. This indicates that while more is needed to help people make informed de- cisions, empowerment measures should be adjusted to different generations and locations.

Europe's new data privacy and security law US big tech iCloud servers ...

In the shadow of GDPR, US authorities have introduced CLOUD Act, a US federal law that has met quite a lot of criticism. CLOUD Act, among other things, enables U.S. authorities get access to data of US cloud providers - including data stored abroad. Many have expressed concern about what the law may entail in practice.

Reaction to posts in another thread ..

Lessons learned by the neocon cabal and John Bolton. Joe Biden is standing next to John McCain, Joe Lieberman, HRC and Lindsey Graham.

Regime Change Cascades: What We Have Learned from the 1848 Revolutions to the 2011 Arab Uprisings

Works on the 1848 revolutions, 1989 collapse of European communism, 1998-2005 postcommunist color revolutions, and 2011 Arab uprisings frequently cross-reference each other, implying what is called here the concept of a "regime change cascade." Research on these "Big Four" events shows that cascading can occur in protest calling for regime change as well as revolution in the name of regime change, but these rarely lead to actual regime change. Regime change cascades can occur through demonstration effects and active mediation, although common external causes and contemporaneous domestic triggers can cause events outwardly resembling them. Regime change cascades tend to occur where (a) there exists a common frame of political reference, (b) unpopular leaderships are becoming lame ducks; (c) elites lack other focal points for coordinated defection, and (d) structural conditions supporting a new regime type are in place. Cascading to hybrid regimes or autocracy may be more likely than cascading to democracy.

Some countries are quite busy with revisionism of history, majority rule, minorities are harassed, censored or outright banned as political group. The banner is "democratic" vote.

Many diaries have passed about the design of colour revolutions initiated by the West in "hostile" territory with authoritarian leaders. UN Charter, sovereignty and respect for borders. 🇺🇸 🤣

Georgia: oil, neocons, cold war and our credibility by Jerome a Paris Sun Aug 10th, 2008 |

This is another diary critical of the West's position on Georgia. (Update: See also my new story: The warmongers lose another war

....
But if you think I am just a "lefty European apologist of Soviet atrocities", feel free to move on and ignore this diary.

As an additional preamble, when I say that the West has no more credibility than Russia on this conflict, it does not mean that Russia has any credibility, or that I love Putin, it means that the West has no credibility whatsoever; when I mock the West's claims about human rights and democracy, it does not mean that I think Russia is a defender of human rights and democracy, just that we have no credibility eitheron the topic.

Always insightful writings by Jerome ... I agreed with his views then, and still do today. A truth seeker. Nearly 15 years later here @EuroTrib similar accusations and rhetoric. Just shrug my shoulders and going about my business, 😄

Fact or fiction, in politics it is about perception ...

The Council of Ministers released a no-holds-barred book about its efforts to root out a purported foreign-backed "colour revolution" in Cambodia, lashing out at superpowers like the United States for supposedly trying to cause "immeasurable catastrophe" in the country.

Government unit publishes 132-page treatise on threat of `colour revolution' | Phnom Penh Post |

[Update-1]

A truly nice inside story with views from the West … a bit of disinformation somewhat, but nevertheless a recommended read.

Kilimnik didn’t say much, only that he needed to talk, in person, as soon as possible. Exactly what he wanted to talk about was apparently too sensitive even for the tradecraft the men so fastidiously deployed — encrypted apps, the drafts folder of a shared email account and, when necessary, dedicated “bat phones.” But he had made coded reference — “caviar” — to an important former client, the deposed Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych, who had fled to Russia in 2014 after presiding over the massacre of scores of pro-democracy protesters. [A crucial and big lie … the massacre was most likely led by revolting groups trained by UK and/or US special forces. Pyatt and Nuland plus the U.S. stooges in Kyiv know the truth]

….
Regardless, with financing from Deripaska’s oligarch allies in Ukraine, Manafort began to put the plan into action. He brought in international elections consultants and American strategists from both sides of the partisan aisle. For local knowledge, Manafort brought in Kilimnik, who even then was trailed by suspicions that he was a Russian mole. Five feet tall with a disarmingly boyish mien, Kilimnik had last worked at the International Republican Institute (IRI), a democracy-promotion outfit affiliated with Senator John McCain of Arizona, who was a client of Manafort’s longtime partner, Rick Davis. Kilimnik had studied at a Soviet military language academy known for minting future intelligence officers and had served as a Russian Army translator. His colleagues at I.R.I. came to suspect he was passing secrets to Russian intelligence, and he was fired when the institute learned he was working for Yanukovych’s backers.

Using tools at the disposal of Western communications and election guru’s … nothing wrong with such an initiative … compare the ugliness with US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and her favorite Lanny Davis overturning a Democratic election in Honduras. Simple hypocrisy or just as evil by the American empire, oligarchs, lobbyists, and big corporations.

A Labyrinth of Deception: Secretary Clinton and the Honduran Coup | Council on Hemispheric Affairs - April 12, 2017 |

Engineering an revolution …

Related a more recent diary …

Honduras: First woman president? | Nov 28th, 2021 |

The EU should support the Social Democrat candidate Ms Xiomara Castro de Zelaya should she be elected.

Venezuela? Two decades of interference and election meddling which became clear with US electronic voting machines under first term George Bush cabal and regime.

In 2014 I wrote a diary with the same headline as this article … today I still back the analysis put forth.

Meet the Americans Who Put Together the Coup in Kiev

By Steve Weissman, Reader Supported News - 25 March 2014

If the US State Department's Victoria Nuland had not said "Fuck the EU," few outsiders at the time would have heard of Ambassador Geoffrey Pyatt, the man on the other end of her famously bugged telephone call. But now Washington's man in Kiev is gaining fame as the face of the CIA-style "destabilization campaign" that brought down Ukraine's monumentally corrupt but legitimately elected President Viktor Yanukovych.

"Geoffrey Pyatt is one of these State Department high officials who does what he’s told and fancies himself as a kind of a CIA operator," laughs Ray McGovern, who worked for 27 years as an intelligence analyst for the agency. "It used to be the CIA doing these things," he tells Democracy Now. "I know that for a fact." Now it's the State Department, with its coat-and-tie diplomats, twitter and facebook accounts, and a trick bag of goodies to build support for American policy.

A retired apparatchik, the now repentant McGovern was debating Yale historian Timothy Snyder, a self-described left-winger and the author of two recent essays in The New York Review of Books – “https://www.nybooks.com/online/2014/03/01/ukraine-haze-propaganda/“>The Haze of Propaganda” and “Fascism, Russia, and Ukraine.” Both men speak Russian, but they come from different planets.

On Planet McGovern – or my personal take on it – realpolitik rules. The State Department controls the prime funding sources for non-military intervention, including the controversial National Endowment for Democracy (NED), which Washington created to fund covert and clandestine action after Ramparts magazine and others exposed how the CIA channeled money through private foundations, including the Ford Foundation. State also controls the far-better-funded Agency for International Development (USAID), along with a growing network of front groups, cut-outs, and private contractors. State coordinates with like-minded governments and their parallel institutions, mostly in Canada and Western Europe. State's "democracy bureaucracy" oversees nominally private but largely government funded groups like Freedom House. And through Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs Victoria Nuland, State had Geoff Pyatt coordinate the coup in Kiev.

The CIA, NSA, and Pentagon likely provided their specialized services, while some of the private contractors exhibited shadowy skill sets. But if McGovern knows the score, as he should, diplomats ran the campaign to destabilize Ukraine and did the hands-on dirty work.

Geoffrey Pyatt later moved to Greece and Ambassador Ford of Syrian revolt refused by Egypt.

Egypt rages against likely US ambassador on Twitter | France24 - June 8, 2013 |

US media reports that Robert Ford, former top US envoy to Syria, will be Washington’s next ambassador to Egypt has sparked a vitriolic Twitter campaign over a Canadian conspiracy [false] website's claims that he once ran “death squads” in Iraq.

    Robert S. Ford’s was appointed Minister Counselor for Political Affairs at the US Embassy under the helm of Ambassador John Negroponte. He was not only part of the inner team, he was Negroponte’s partner in setting up the Salvador Option.  Some of the groundwork had been established in Najaf prior to Ford’s transfer to Baghdad.

    John Negroponte and Robert Stephen Ford were put in charge of recruiting the Iraqi death squads. While Negroponte  coordinated the operation from his office at the US Embassy, Robert S. Ford, who was fluent in both Arabic and Turkish, was entrusted with the task of establishing strategic contacts with Shiite and Kurdish militia groups outside the « Green Zone ».

Robert Ford was refused accreditation by Egypt and retired in February 2014.

Revisited: Engineering ‘People’s Revolutions’ – A Color? | Mar 5, 2014 |

With link to this article …

How Ukraine Might Blow Its Historic Opportunity | Center for Geopolitical Analysis - Feb. 2013 |

END OF UPDATE

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'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 09:46:20 AM EST


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 04:25:12 PM EST

Translation:
🇺🇸 The puppet #Guaido, which America spent millions of dollars and supported to overthrow #Maduro, was dismissed when it failed.

Moreover, Biden is now trying to get along with Maduro due to the circumstances.
🇺🇸 puppet 6-piece table in 2023 it's your turn


'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 04:27:00 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Translation:
1 government comes about through 1 election, i.e. #USA 🇺🇸 doesn't fit, their legitimacy is questioned first ('elections manipulated, falsified, ...'). If that doesn't help, they try 1 putsch. If that doesn't work either, there will be #sanctions. #Guaido

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 04:29:53 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 04:31:17 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 09:49:04 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 04:36:18 PM EST
That's what my parents taught us.
by Cat on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 08:59:18 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 11:25:10 PM EST


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 11:25:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 11:26:27 PM EST
[ Parent ]
A year ago Borrell pitched the towel in Guaidó's corner ....



'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 11:47:49 PM EST
[ Parent ]

#endcolonialism #endtorture #freecuba

The School of the Americas | Duke U. |

Military Training and Political Violence in the Americas

Located at Fort Benning in Columbus, Georgia, the School of the Americas (soa) is a U.S. Army center that has trained more than sixty thousand soldiers and police, mostly from Latin America, in counterinsurgency and combat-related skills since it was founded in 1946. So widely documented is the participation of the School's graduates in torture, murder, and political repression throughout Latin America that in 2001 the School officially changed its name to the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation.



'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sat Dec 31st, 2022 at 11:51:13 PM EST
Always remember, the Monroe Doctrine was never anti-colonial, just anti-anybody-but-US-colonial.
by rifek on Mon Jan 2nd, 2023 at 07:00:54 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Management of five firms linked to Pegasus maker NSO is moved to London

The UK-based directors of the five companies recently asked an NSO Group employee based in Luxembourg to place a notice on the companies' premises announcing that the companies' management and activities had moved to London. They have also asked for the companies' server and electronic files to be moved to the UK as soon as possible.

The move could create political controversy. Privacy and security experts have documented a string of cases in which NSO's government clients have previously used Pegasus spyware against lawyers, campaigners and other individuals in the UK. The software allows clients to hack into any phone without detection and can turn a mobile phone into a remote listening device.

Last year, after the publication of the Pegasus Project, an investigation into NSO by a media consortium led by Forbidden Stories and including the Guardian, a group of 10 MPs and peers, including the Labour MP Andy Slaughter called on the then prime minister, Boris Johnson, to impose sanctions on NSO.

In their letter, the MPs said documented cyber-attacks against UK-based human rights activists and others in the UK represented "egregious breaches of domestic and international human rights law".

[US Department of Commerce did blacklist the NSO Group, several countries in the EU bought the software and I believe The Netherlands does it's part in Nine Eyes alliance, hacking Russia and drugs bosses]

Covered in several diaries in recent years ...

Draft Report: Committee of Inquiry to investigate the use of Pegasus and equivalent surveillance spyware | EU Parliament |

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Wed Jan 4th, 2023 at 10:05:09 PM EST
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 07:01:32 PM EST


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 09:03:24 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 09:04:47 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Riots and Twitter: connective politics, social media and framing discourses in the digital public sphere | Aug. 17, 2017 |

Social media technologies like Twitter are credited with enabling a new form of connective action, in which political movements coalesce and mobilise around hashtags, memes and personalised action frames. After the UK riots in 2011, citizen `broom armies' took to the streets to clear up and repair damage. Different hashtags, including #RiotCleanUp and #OperationCupOfTea, were implicated in these movements.

This paper questions connective action theory in this context. It seeks to respond to two criticisms of the connective approach, namely that connective action underplays differences between technologies and does not account sufficiently for cultural and ideological drivers of action.

The paper combines an analysis of software systems, issue publics and discourse to giver a fuller account of connective politics during the riot clean-up movements. In doing so, it develops several metrics to advance understanding of digital communication systems, drawing attention to the roles that time and account status play in assembling meaning on Twitter. This analysis suggests that the clean-up movements were complex, discursive political acts, in which celebrity accounts played an influential role in framing discourse. Furthermore, the #RiotCleanUp hashtag credited with mobilising these groups is found to provide a less compelling explanation of action when compared against the more emotive but less noted #OperationCupOfTea.

Spanish #pitchfork rebellion  #arabspring  #colourrevolution



'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 09:21:37 PM EST
Terrorism as a Global Wave Phenomenon: Anarchist Wave

The First Wave of global terrorism began in Russia. After Russia was humiliated in the Crimean War (1853-1856), Czar Alexander II decided to make it more like Western states which seemed so much stronger. In 1861, he freed 25 million serfs, roughly one third of Russia's population. He then established local self-governments, "Westernized" the judicial system, abolished capital punishment, greatly expanded universities, etc. But the changes proved difficult. The serfs had little money to buy properties necessary for their livelihoods, and the Czar refused to establish a national legislature. Narodnaya Volya (People's Will), a small group greatly influenced by anarchists, was formed in 1879, and in 1881 it assassinated Alexander II. Members were university students; women constituted one third of the group, the first time women had ever been involved in terrorist activity. Russian terrorism persisted for 40 odd years, though individual groups rarely lasted more than 5 years.

Assassinating prominent public figures was the principal tactic, and martyrdom was then sought in court trials. Efforts were always made to seek international support, i.e., foreign bases, Diasporas, other radical groups, etc. Two kinds of terrorist groups emerged on six continents: nationalists and anarchists. Anarchists produced the "Golden Age of Assassination" (1892-1901) in which more monarchs, presidents, and prime ministers were assassinated than ever before. The Wave's high point was from 1890 to 1910. But that high point produced furious antiterrorist sentiment and no significant support from the poor, forcing many anarchists to abandon assassination and seek other methods like syndicalism for achieving their goals.

The Four Waves of Modern Terrorism by David C. Rapoport | 2017 | A thesis based on this work

Modern terror began in Russia in the 1880s and within a decade appeared in Western Europe, the Balkans, and Asia.

Historic overview ...

List of peasant revolts from 200BC till 1994AD

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri Jan 6th, 2023 at 09:22:50 PM EST
< wipes tears >

excluding the prior 400 years of European sectarian wars and "jungle" gardening.

by Cat on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 02:34:52 PM EST
[ Parent ]
(1096 and 1291) to capture teh Holy land OCCUPIED by teh muslim natives
by Cat on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 02:48:01 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Not peasants but valiant knights riding under the banner of the Holy Cross ...  many secrets taken into the grave or buried on Malta or a castle. Various gods must be angry in the heavens as an underdog left the battle field with the prize. We defend our home over there ... imposed Judeo-Christian values on the West and the America's.

Revenge is mine ... between now and eternity 🙏🏽 borders are not yet settled.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat Jan 7th, 2023 at 03:51:50 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Are you sure about that?
by Cat on Sun Jan 8th, 2023 at 02:28:07 PM EST
[ Parent ]

The Fascist Creep - Italy and the Rise of Mussolini

Vigilantes, Revenge and Escalation

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 8th, 2023 at 02:42:04 PM EST
Why the Godfather of Human Rights Is Not Welcome at Harvard | The Nation |

Kenneth Roth, who ran Human Rights Watch for 29 years, was denied a fellowship at the Kennedy School. The reason? Israel.

Sikkink included that point in a detailed e-mail she prepared for the dean seeking to rebut the charge of anti-Israel bias. She drew on the Political Terror Scale, a yearly measure of state repression compiled by a team based at the University of North Carolina at Asheville. It ranks countries on a 1-to-5 scale of least to most repressive, based on the incidence of political imprisonment, summary executions, torture, and the like. The team codes each country's record based on the annual human rights reports of the US State Department, Amnesty International, and Human Rights Watch.

Every year, Israel and the Occupied Territories scored a 3 or 4, putting it in a class with Angola, Colombia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe--a "very bad record," Sikkink says. She further compared HRW's assessment to that of both Amnesty and the State Department and found the three to be "pretty similar." In short, Sikkink says, the data showed that "Human Rights Watch does not have a bias at all against Israel" and that to conclude otherwise "is misinformation." She sent her findings to Elmendorf; the dean answered that he had read her e-mail but would not reconsider his decision.



'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Sun Jan 8th, 2023 at 02:45:16 PM EST
[ Parent ]

Harvard's critics should do better than concoct anti-Jewish conspiracies | JPost opinion - Jonathan Greenblatt |

ADL CEO Jonathan Greenblatt at the Ambassadors Against BDS Summit at the U.N. | May 31, 2016 |

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jan 19th, 2023 at 11:00:40 PM EST
[ Parent ]


'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Thu Jan 19th, 2023 at 05:51:20 PM EST


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