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NATO Russia Founding Act - A Dead Letter

by Oui Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 02:34:13 PM EST

Changing US foreign policy after George H. Bush and James Baker III, the unreliable partner for peace in the world.

From "Chicken Kiev" to Ukrainian Recognition: Domestic Politics in U.S. Foreign Policy toward Ukraine | Harvard Ukrainian Studies - by Susan Fink (1997) |

President Bush Remarks at the Supreme Soviet Building - Ukraine address 1 August 1991

Remarks to the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of the Ukraine in Kiev, Soviet Union - August 1, 1991 (transcript)

This is video footage of President Bush participates in a wreath laying ceremony at the War Memorial site in Kiev and gives remarks at the Bobiyar War Memorial Service.

Trip to Moscow and Kiev - 01 August 1991.

As the US military took over foreign policy from a Republican US Congress by urging NATO expansion in the 90s, the burden has lasted till this day.

The famous address by president Bush the elder in Kiev on 1 August 1991, it nearly sounds as if the American version of Nelson Mandela was speaking.

Tolerance nourishes hope. A priest wrote of glasnost: Today, more than ever the words of Paul the Apostle, spoken 2,000 years ago, ring out: They counted us among the dead, but look, we are alive. In Ukraine, in Russia, in Armenia, and the Baltics, the spirit of liberty thrives.

But freedom cannot survive if we let despots flourish or permit seemingly minor restrictions to multiply until they form chains, until they form shackles. Later today, I'll visit the monument at Babi Yar -- a somber reminder, a solemn reminder, of what happens when people fail to hold back the horrible tide of intolerance and tyranny. Yet freedom is not the same as independence. Americans will not support those who seek independence in order to replace a far-off tyranny with a local despotism. They will not aid those who promote a suicidal nationalism based upon ethnic hatred.

We are especially satisfied with the fact that you, Mr. President, came to our Republic right after the historic document, the Strategic Offensive Arms Reduction Treaty, had been signed in Moscow. The Ukrainian people consider this act as another concrete step towards the achievement of general and complete disarmament, toward a world without weapons and without wars.

Ukraine, as we all know, is the motherland of many hundreds of thousands of Americans. In fact, back home in Washington, DC, stands a statue of the Ukrainian poet and painter Taras Shevchenko. Once, reflecting on the democratic experiment in America, he wrote this: "When will we have a Washington with a new and righteous law? One day we shall have him."

You are a strong people, and your rich and glorious past spans centuries of upheaval and change. You first brought Christianity to this part of Europe, this crossroads of Europe and Asia. Christianity took hold here over a thousand years ago when Prince Vladimir of Kiev baptized his followers in the Dnieper River.

NATO Expansion: What Gorbachev Heard | National Security Archive |

NATO and Russia: A Defensive Expansion?

NATO should have died with the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Instead, it is an unlikely institutional success story, now in its 72nd year of life, that adapted its role after its principal threat disappeared. However, despite a move towards a cooperative model with Russia in the early 1990s, it instead contributed to heightened tensions by destabilising the relationship between the two parties.

This essay traces the expansion process through memos, conversations, and academic debates of the period to show that despite its opposition to eastwards expansion, Russia made numerous concessions on the question and, despite nominally shifting to a more political role after the end of the Cold War, NATO continued to act as a realist military institution seeking zero-sum gains.

Further, by focussing on realist strategic outcomes rather than their political context, it was not only expansion itself that damaged NATO's relationship with Russia, but how it was conducted: the United States did not accord due importance to the perspective of its counterpart and ignored the political implications of how the expansion process unfolded. If expansion had been more politically aware and tactful, tensions between Russia and the West may have been tempered.

Former candidate for the Democratic nomination for US president Bill Bradley on the Cold War and Bill Clinton's lies to Russian president Yeltsin ...


A summary of most American war hawks preparing for Pax America and the New American Century.

Role Augustus: Pax Romana - 27 BCE and 180 CE

The Roman Republic became the Roman Empire in 27 BCE when Julius Caesar's adopted son, best known as Augustus, became the ruler of Rome. Augustus established an autocratic form of government, where he was the sole ruler and made all important decisions.

Although we refer to him as Rome's first emperor, Augustus never took the title of king or emperor, nor did his successors; they preferred to call themselves princeps, first citizen, or primus inter pares, first among peers. This choice of title maintained the appearance of limited power that had been so important under the Republic.

Many of the reforms enacted by Augustus and his successors had a deep and lasting impact on the internal political and economic structures of Rome.

Senate Hearing: The Debate On NATO Enlargement | Oct-Nov 1997 |

Hearing of October 22, 1997
Qualifications of Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic for NATO

The Chairman Jesse Helms (R-NC). The committee will come to order.

Madam Secretary, as you know, we welcome you. We appreciate your being our lead-off witness as the Foreign Relations Committee begins its consideration of NATO expansion.

For nearly 50 years, NATO has defended democracy against communism and other forms of tyranny in Europe. Despite that success, many Americans will never forget the betrayal at Yalta which left millions of Europeans behind enemy lines.

Today, with the expansion of the NATO alliance, we have an historic opportunity to right that wrong by accepting Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic into NATO. All Americans should welcome these nations as they finally become equal partners in a community of democratic nations, thereby ensuring that their new democracies shall never again fall victim to tyranny.

Now, if Europe and the United States are to enjoy a century of peace, upcoming, one that does not replicate the bloody wars of the past century, we must embrace these democracies and guide them and show them away from their tragic histories of ethnic division and war.

That said, there's a right way and a wrong way to proceed with NATO expansion. We in the Senate recognize that this vital undertaking is not without cost to the United States, and I am convinced that the three new democracies are willing and eager to bear their fair share, but we must now make certain that our present NATO allies are likewise willing to fulfill their end of the bargain.

Just last week our allies made clear to us that they expect the United States, meaning the American taxpayers, to pay the lion's share of the cost of expansion. Now, Madam Secretary, ratification of NATO expansion by the U.S. Senate may very well succeed or fail on the question of whether you can dissuade our allies of that notion.

Further, we must resist any temptation by the leadership of our country to rush forward into an ill-considered NATO partnership with Russia. Now, while the United States is willing to take steps to demonstrate that NATO represents absolutely no threat to a democratic Russia, NATO's relations with Russia must be restrained by the reality that Russia's future commitment to peace and democracy, as of this date, is far from certain. In fact, I confess a fear that the United States' overture toward Russia may have already gone a bit far.

NATO Expansion Senate Hearing | C-span - Oct 1997 |

The Senate Foreign Relations Committee heard testimony from Secretary of State Madeleine Albright about the issue of NATO expansion. She spoke about the inclusion of Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic. She testified about the importance of NATO expansion to the security of emerging democracies in Eastern Europe. Sec. Albright also talked about the financing of NATO expansion by current members.

Prepared statement by Henry Kissinger on US-Russia relations ...

Build-in in fallacy as it was the founding of the EEC and later the European Union with its commitment to peace through economic ties that consolidated peace in Europe. Was NATO ever awarded the Nobel Prize?

What is the military threat that NATO expansion is designed to counter? How does expansion increase the security of Europe and the American people?

Administration's Response: Europe's security is a vital American interest, as we have seen through two world wars and the Cold War. Over the past half century, NATO has been our primary shield to protect that interest. With the Cold War over, NATO remains the foundation of trans Atlantic security. A larger, stronger NATO that includes Europe's new democracies will be even better able to provide for Europe's security and make America safer. It will help deter future threats, expand our collective defense capability to address traditional and non traditional security challenges and secure the historic gains of democracy in Europe. It is a key part of our strategy to build an undivided, democratic, peaceful Europe for the first time in history.

NATO's very existence is an important reason its current members and prospective new members face no imminent threat of attack. By adding new members to its strength, the world's most effective deterrent force will be even better able to prevent conflict from arising in the first place.

The alliance must be prepared for other contingencies, including the possibility that Russia could abandon democracy and return to the threatening behavior of the Soviet period, although we see such a turn as unlikely. Through our policy of engaging Russia we seek to provide strong incentives to deepen its commitment to democracy and peaceful relations with its neighbors. These efforts, combined with the process of NATO enlargement and the NATO Russia Founding Act, increase the likelihood that Russia will continue on the path of democratic and peaceful development.

Endgame in NATO's Enlargement: The Baltic States and Ukraine
| By Yaroslav Bilinsky - 1998 |

Related reading ...

World In Turmoil: Role of Brzezinski and Albright, Our Democrats | by Oui - Aug 2, 2014 |

Brzezinski blasts 'Bush's hollow fiction of Iraq war' | by Jerome a Paris - Jul 1, 2005 |

Bush, a liar taking the USA on a suicidal path. Pretty strong stuff...

The End of Conventional Arms Control and the Role of US Congress

Same strong words can be said of US path of NATO expansion and confrontation with Russia. Stop dreaming ...

How the U.S. squandered the gains of the first Cold War ...

Bush Praises Union Treaty in Restive Ukraine | LA Times - 2 Aug 1991 |

KIEV, Soviet Union -- President Bush pointedly praised Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and his Union Treaty on Thursday in the ancient city of Kiev, where surging Ukrainian nationalism could derail Gorbachev's ambitious plan to save the Soviet Union from disintegration.

Although Bush told the Ukrainian legislature that the United States would not try to choose between winners and losers in political competitions involving the republics and the central government in Moscow, he went on to praise the Union Treaty and cautioned against pursuing "the suicidal course of isolation."

    Yet freedom is not the same as independence. Americans will not support those who seek independence in order to replace a far-off tyranny with a local despotism. They will not aid those who promote a suicidal nationalism based upon ethnic hatred.

Bush delivered his not-entirely-welcome message first in an address to the legislature--the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic--and later at a luncheon set amid the baroque splendors of Mariinsky Palace, built in 1742 for the daughter of Czar Peter the Great and later used as a Bolshevik headquarters during the Russian Revolution.

How Gorbachev was misled over assurances against NATO expansion

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 04:56:16 PM EST

Small history lesson:
Without Genscher's and Baker's commitment to #Russia not to expand #NATO to the east, there would have been no German reunification.

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sun May 1st, 2022 at 06:16:06 AM EST
[ Parent ]
I've written often about extreme war hawk General Breedlove running circles around European leaders in NATO meetings and setting aggressive policy contra Putin and Russia.

Former NATO Commander Says Western Fears Of Nuclear War Are Preventing A Proper Response To Putin | RFERL - Apr 7, 2022 |

A former top NATO commander has said Western fears "about nuclear weapons and World War III" have left it "fully deterred" and Vladimir Putin "completely undeterred" as the Russian leader pursues his increasingly brutal invasion of Ukraine.

"We have ceded the initiative to the enemy," Philip Breedlove told RFE/RL's Georgian Service in a recent interview.

Breedlove is a retired four-star U.S. Air Force general who led U.S. forces in Europe and served as NATO's supreme allied commander from 2013 to 2016.

RFE/RL: Has NATO done enough to help Ukraine? Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskiy has asked for more weapons.

Philip Breedlove: In my opinion, we have not. In warfare, you want to deter your enemy, you want to have the initiative and not give the enemy the initiative. And we have ceded the initiative to the enemy. There's a lot more we need to do in the role of being a provider. We have not gotten a medium- and high-altitude air defense there yet, we have not gotten coastal-defense cruise missiles there yet. I do not yet understand why we haven't gotten MiGs [fighter jets] there that other nations want to give them. So, there's a multitude of things even inside our restricted sort of format that we still need to do.

RFE/RL: Zelenskiy has told NATO leaders to never again tell him that Ukraine's military does not match NATO standards. Just how good is the Ukrainian Army?

Breedlove: Well, they're showing us just how good they are. They're magnificent. They have prepared a defensive depth. And they have thought very hard about how to fight with a smaller and less well-provided-for force against a larger and much heavier mechanical force. And it has worked so far like a charm and, of course, it means they use up a lot of ammunition and military weaponry and that's where the West now has to step up its game and give the Ukrainian military what it needs to fight.

RFE/RL: Iraq, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Libya are all places where NATO, a defensive alliance, intervened in the past to stave off a humanitarian catastrophe. Is the reason it has not done the same in Ukraine boil down to Moscow having nuclear weapons?

Breedlove: As I mentioned before, the bottom line is we in the West, certainly my nation, and NATO, are completely deterred in this matter. We have been so worried about nuclear weapons and World War III that we have allowed ourselves to be fully deterred. And [Putin], frankly, is completely undeterred. He has switched into the most horrific war against the citizens of Ukraine, it is beyond criminal at this point.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 06:52:07 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 08:13:25 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 08:33:15 PM EST
Lloyd Austin: "In terms of our ... ehh their ability to win, is ... and so they believe we could win ... "

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 08:34:28 PM EST
[ Parent ]

The analyst points out that these countries, including Turkey, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, will make every possible effort to ensure that the measures they will have to take against Russia do not harm their relations with Moscow much but are sensational enough to satisfy the West. "Turkey's move to close its airspace to Russian planes bound for Syria is one of such steps. It won't become much of a problem for our forces stationed in Syria because warplanes use a corridor above Iran and Iraq and most cargoes are delivered by sea.

The air corridor above Turkey was largely used for delegations visiting Syria and the deployment of troops. Nothing catastrophic will happen if these flights take a bit more time," the expert noted.

He emphasized, however, that the decision made by Turkey might be followed by other steps, which would prove to be more painful for Russia, particularly as far as Syria was concerned. "That said, the airspace closure may be viewed as a signal to Moscow," the analyst concluded.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 08:48:27 PM EST
The Russians were spies, our agents have clean hands ...

Berlin says Russia's expulsion of diplomats 'not justified' | Al Jazeera |

Germany Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock has condemned Russia's announcement that it will expel 40 German diplomatic staff.

The move by Moscow was said to by a symmetrical response to Germany's expulsion of the same number of staff from Russian diplomatic missions earlier this month.

However, Baerbock said the Russian staff expelled from Germany had been spies, rather than diplomats.

"We expected today's step, but it is in no way justified," Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock said in a statement.

Baerbock said that the 40 Russian diplomats expelled by Berlin "did not serve diplomacy for a single day" while those who were expelled by Russia had "not done anything wrong."

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 09:17:18 PM EST

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Mon Apr 25th, 2022 at 09:22:53 PM EST
A key ally of NATO under US sanctions doen not want further escalation versus Russia.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri May 13th, 2022 at 05:14:09 PM EST
Turkey Signals it Would Veto NATO Accession of Finland, Sweden

Turkey would not positively welcome Finland and Sweden joining the NATO alliance, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said Friday, describing the initiative as a mistake.

"We do not have a positive opinion. Scandinavian countries are like a guest house for terrorist organizations," Erdoğan told reporters after Friday prayers in Istanbul, indicating that Turkey could use its status as a member of the Western military alliance to veto moves to admit the two countries.

Erdogan said Turkey's former rulers "made a mistake" by giving a green light to Greece's NATO membership in 1952.

"We, as Turkey, do not want to make a second mistake on this issue," he stressed.

Turkey's veto would satisfy Russia

A Turkish veto on the accession of the two Scandinavian counties would offer an unexpected propaganda victory for Russia, which has threatened NATO with retaliation if it goes ahead with the plan.

Turkey slams US over Syria move

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Fri May 13th, 2022 at 05:14:55 PM EST
[ Parent ]

S. Ossetia: Russian Annexation Referendum Slated for July 17

Editorial | Pawning the Country

'Sapere aude'

by Oui (Oui) on Sat May 14th, 2022 at 07:37:25 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Russia's Strategic Partnership with Europe | ISS Quarterly 2004 by Dow Lynch |

Shortly before the twelfth Russian-European Union in early November 2003, in an interview in the Italian press, Russian President Vladimir Putin stated, `For us Europe is a major trade and economic partner, and our natural most important partner, including in the political sphere. Russia is not located on the American continent, after all, but in Europe." Russia, he continued, "Is interested in developing relations with our partners in the U.S. and the American continent as a whole and in Asia, but, of course, above all with Europe."

Putin has de opted significant time and energy to developing relations with the EU since his appointment as Prime Minister in 1999 and was involved in writing and presenting Russia's official strategy to the EU in October of the same year.  Sunce 2000, driven by the new president, the Russian government has sought to add substance to the strategic partnership that was declared between. Is ow and Brussels.

    "Putin aspires to help globalization and not have Russia shaped by it."

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri May 13th, 2022 at 09:23:55 PM EST
Russia's Strategic Partnership with Europe

Even after launching ESDP --European Spatial Development Perspective-- in 1999, the EU lacked strategic vision in assessing the potential of Russia as a major military power (Forsberg 2004); despite emphasis by the first Putin administration on Russia's aligning itself with the Euro-Atlantic community (Lynch 2003;10-12; Averre 2005), there were few signs of political will to construct a genuine strategic framework for the relationship. Despite an extensive array of institutional arrangements, the deficit of common understandings based on shared interests and the complexity of both sides' decision-making processes in the EU's case, various loci of decision-making, also involving new member states from central Europe and the Baltics which have complicated historical relations with Russia, and in the Russian case the influence on the executive of numerous bureaucratic agencies and interest groupsnarrowed the possibilities to build trust.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri May 13th, 2022 at 09:24:46 PM EST
[ Parent ]
Russia's Sovereign Globalization Rise, Fall and Future | Chatham House - Jan 2016 |

Russia's relationship with the global economy has developed quite differently: it has been an arc. In 2000 the Putin presidency began by committing Russia to deeper engagement with the global economy and its governance, a goal actively supported by the West. By 2007, the mid-point of this period, every strand of Russia's relationship with the international economic system had thickened and strengthened significantly: Russia had just chaired the G8 for the first time and was soon to call for `modernizing alliances' with the West. But today Russia's president speaks of minimizing dependence on the West while, for the first time since the end of the Cold War, the West now seeks to restrict, rather than promote, Russia's integration into the global economy. On no other issue have the outcomes departed so comprehensively from the original intentions of Russia and the West alike.

What explains this remarkable reversal? The answer lies in the working out of a central tension between two fundamental but opposing impulses in the Putin project: to re-establish a strong, centralized and controlling state and to build a prosperous country through integration into the global economy. The first has entailed strong centralized state control over citizens and institutions (in Russian parlance, the vertikal of power), while the second has entailed autonomous, horizontal flows of goods and money across borders, linking Russia to actors and jurisdictions beyond its formal reach.

'Sapere aude'
by Oui (Oui) on Fri May 13th, 2022 at 09:25:30 PM EST
[ Parent ]

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