Amy Albertson linked to ...
Presented w/o Context Is Disinformation
This is most likely today's Poland, Belarus, and Ukraine west of the Dnipro river. Not today's Russia.
This is a New York Times article published in 1882. This was the plight of Jews in shtetls across Eastern Europe.
The shtetl pattern first took shape within Poland-Lithuania before the partitions of the kingdom. Jews had been invited to settle in the private towns owned by the Polish nobility that developed from the 16th century, on relatively very favorable conditions.
The Exodus of Jews Out of Russia - 1882
.. either evading or bribing Cossacks who guarded the frontier, or suffering these chivalrous soldiers to plunder them if every ruble they possessed. Frequently the fugitives arrived in Austria deprived of almost every article of clothing, and eye-witnesses describe how, stripped by the Cossacks, the children were led into Brody absolutely naked. New York Times - 1882.
Modern Jewish History: Pogroms
The word designates more particularly the attacks carried out by the Christian population against the Jews between 1881 and 1921 while the civil and military authorities remained neutral and occasionally provided their secret or open support. The pogroms occurred during periods of severe political crisis in the country and were linked to social upheavals and nationalist incitement in Eastern Europe.
The Golden Age Shtetl: A New History of Jewish Life in East Europe | Princeton |
The shtetl was home to two-thirds of East Europe's Jews in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, yet it has long been one of the most neglected and misunderstood chapters of the Jewish experience. This book provides the first grassroots social, economic, and cultural history of the shtetl. Challenging popular misconceptions of the shtetl as an isolated, ramshackle Jewish village stricken by poverty and pogroms, Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern argues that, in its heyday from the 1790s to the 1840s, the shtetl was a thriving Jewish community as vibrant as any in Europe.
Petrovsky-Shtern brings this golden age to life, looking at dozens of shtetls and drawing on a wealth of never-before-used archival material. Illustrated throughout with rare archival photographs and artwork, this nuanced history casts the shtetl in an altogether new light, revealing how its golden age continues to shape the collective memory of the Jewish people today.
The Kościuszko Uprising of 1794 and the end of Polish-Lithuanian state
The Wave of Pogroms of 1882-82 and its Consequences | Brandeis University |
The new reign of Alexander III began inauspiciously. Within six weeks of the assassination of his father, tsar Alexander II in St. Petersburg on 1 March 1881 by a band of revolutionary terrorists, a pogrom broke out in Elizavetgrad, in the province of Kherson in the south. It was followed by others in Kiev and Odessa, where many of those involved were displaced peasants. Soon, however, the rioting spread to the countryside. Of 259 pogroms, 219 took place in villages, four in Jewish agricultural colonies, and only thirty-six in cities and small towns. The violence continued intermittently until March 1882, with outbreaks occurring in Balta and Podolia. In the final pogrom, which occurred in Nizhny Novgorod on 7 June 1884 and was accompanied by an accusation of ritual murder, ten Jews were hacked to death with axes. Altogether perhaps forty-five Jews lost their lives in these events, thirty-five in 1881-82 as well as the ten in Nizhny Novgorod in 1884. Many more were injured, and there was also considerable material damage. It was certainly the worst outbreak of anti- Jewish violence in Europe since the Haydamak revolts of the late 1760s.
Most Jews did not benefit from the commercialization of Russian agriculture, but some did, and a small number, such as the sugar refiner Israel Brodsky in Kiev, became very wealthy. The apparent prosperity of the Jews provided an easy explanation for those who could not understand why the abolition of serfdom had not been followed by an improvement in the peasants' lot. Moreover, as Orshansky had already pointed out in his analysis of the 1871 pogrom in Odessa, anti-Jewish violence was provoked by the contrast between the Jews' inferior legal status and the perception of their economically privileged position. As he wrote prophetically in that year, `Until such time as the divergence between the Jews' actual and juridical position in Russia is permanently removed by eliminating all existing limitations on their rights, hostility to the Jews will not only persist, but in all likelihood will increase.'
Map showing the percentage of Jews in the Pale of Settlement and Congress Poland, The Jewish Encyclopedia (1905)
Ukrainians are not Russians
Cossack horsemen and Sich Riflemen ...
The Origins of the European Genocide of the Jews - Russian Revolution 1917
Listening to the ordinary people we interviewed talk about the quarter-century between the Russian revolution of 1917 and the German invasion of 1941 made me realize how connected these events were. I was struck by the similarities in the ways they spoke about the bloodshed of 1919 and the Holocaust. Many interviewees even used the term "pogrom" to describe the latter. In the small towns of Ukraine, where many of the first massacres of the Holocaust took place, victims and perpetrators knew each other personally and remembered on whose side each had stood in the previous conflict. Nazi reports echoed the rallying cries of the militants in 1919. In Zhytomyr, the regional capital of the province to which Ovruch belongs, the German Einsatzgruppen reported that "3,145 Jews had to be shot, because experience showed that they must be considered as bearers of Bolshevist propaganda and saboteurs." Germans and Ukrainian collaborators murdered Jews just as they had in 1919, because they feared the Bolsheviks and obdurately declined to differentiate them from the Jews.
Pale of Settlement and Congress Poland
Poland, Holocaust and History Revisionism
Trolls and Crazy Bots Have a Free Reign?
Poles 🇵🇱 Stand with Ukraine 🇺🇦
Hate for Russia Unites Poland and Ukraine
Back to the Future? Naw⁉️
Looks more my like back to the Middle Ages 🤣
Partitions – a gradual, political annexation of the whole area made by Austria, Prussia and Russia in 1772, 1793 and 1795. This led to the disappearance of Poland from the map of Europe. Part of the area of the annihilated Polish state was under Austrian rule as the new province of the monarchy, called Galicia and Lodomeria. Its definitive boundaries, after the Napoleonic wars for more than 100 years, determined the founding of the Vienna Congress in 1815. Within these borders were currently Małopolskie and Podkarpackie voivodeships and the pre-war Lwowskie, Stanisławowskie and Tarnopolskie voivodships, currently known as Western Ukraine.
Nowadays, „Galicia” is more of a cultural and historical-administrative rather than a geographical concept. The awareness of young Poles about the origin of the so-called „Galicia” is so small today. There are almost no people born here before 1918 and remembering the political affiliation of their place of birth. The geographic concept of Galicia after the Second World War was condemned to oblivion. The division of Galicia after 1945 between People’s Poland and the Ukrainian Soviet Republic also did not favor the further functioning of its historical nomenclature in the official languages.
“Armed Ukrainians were herding other Jews in our direction. Some had locked themselves in 'their houses and the doors had to be broken down and the people dragged out kicking and screaming. I recognized Pieter Menten in a German uniform, along with two other Gestapo agents. They had mounted machine guns in front of them. I saw Ukrainians digging a pit some 15 yards from the guns. You could hear voices and crying. Later the guards began to take people out in small groups of ten and twelve. They pushed them onto planks set over the pit. Then …
[Source: TIME Magazine - Dec. 1976]
My previous coverage …
Poland Spinning the Shoah - Anti-semitism by Oui Tue Nov 12th, 2019 |
Excellent source and confirmation …
Poland’s ministry of memory spins the Holocaust
’Orgy of Murder': The Poles Who ’Hunted' Jews and Turned Them Over to the Nazis | Haaretz |
My diary with contribution by das monde …
’Europe Is Dying!’ Tens of Thousands of Far-Righters March In ’Independence’ Parade Calling for ’Polish Intifada’ (VIDEO)
Tens of thousands of Polish nationalists took to the streets of Warsaw for an annual far-right march commemorating the country's independence, with many displaying white power symbols and waving red flares and tiki torches.
Marchers carried Polish flags and chanted "No to the European Union" and "God, honor, homeland!" among other ultra-nationalist slogans. Black-hooded demonstrators held up banners calling for a "Polish Intifada" and denouncing zionism.
#Antisemitism during march for #IndependenceDay in #Warsaw: “Polish intifada! No more apologies! No more zionism”. Facists shout “This is Poland, not Israel!” #MarszNiepodległości2019
The marchers were out in force to commemorate the 1918 establishment of the second Polish republic, formed in the aftermath of World War I from parts of Germany, Austria and Russia.
Participants, gathered in central Warsaw, were warned by organizer Robert Bakiewicz that the world has “abandoned God and Christianity” and Poland will die “as the nations of western Europe are dying” Reuters reported.
The march also drew anti-abortion and anti-LGBT activists, with some demonstrators chanting in support of the “regular family,” the Notes From Poland website reported.
Not my moral values, nor form of Justice or Democracy. The FAIL of the European Union. A path to nowhere … oblivion.
Sparking old feuds to create chaos and setting the narrative for more wars and militarization … the playbook of the EVIL empire
East-West Schism: Destruction Process Inside Europe | by Oui Sun Dec 29th, 2019 |
I had not been aware of this manifesto by the European Parliament ... putting the final nail in revisionism of the events leading up to Nazi Germany invading and conquering most of continental Europe and the Second World War. It were the Communists and the Soviet Union that need to undergo a modern Nuremburg Trial for war crimes during Stalin's reign.
I'm aware of a long campaign to propagandize the evils of Russia and white-wash the role played by the Allied Nations. Russia and Putin weren't invited to commemorate the soldiers who fell on D-Day in Normandy as other leaders were proud to be seen as victors in the defeat of Nazi Germany. There has been a revival in commemorating the end of that Great War. Instead, Europe should be celebrating the fact that we have lived in an age without a major outbreak of hostilities. We should be thankful to the founding of the EEC of six nations and the expansion of the European Union on the principles of Four Freedoms.
Reply from Russia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and an angry Putin ...
A rare moment of sanity from American side …
A prophesy of times ahead? Definitely … the blinking signals were present … hair on fire.
END OF UPDATE